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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

동남아시아연구검색

The Southeast Asian Review


  • - 주제 : 사회과학분야 > 인문지리
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 계간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1229-6899
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 20권 3호 (2010)

중국 동남아학의 발전과 과제

박사명 ( Sa Myung Park )
한국동남아학회|동남아시아연구  20권 3호, 2010 pp. 1-40 ( 총 40 pages)
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초록보기
China and Southeast Asia share intimate relationships based on close spatial, temporal and human conditions. Thus, Southeast Asian studies in China boast of a long lineage of `traditional`, `embryonic`, `closed` and `opened` Southeast Asian studies. In the modern period the `embryonic Southeast Asian studies,` professing conservative nationalism based on traditional Sino-centric perspectives, accumulated elementary knowledges on the history of Sino-Southeast Asian relations and Chinese communities in Southeast Asia. On the other hand, `closed Southeast Asian studies` standing for radical Communism suffered from chronic stagnation. After the Reform and Opening, `opened Southeast Asian studies` recorded impressive progress in the restoration and development of Southeast Asian studies. Nevertheless, `opened Southeast Asian studies` are faced with some serious problems such as biased perspectives, traditional methods, and national subjects. Most of all, it is urgent to overcome Sino-centric perspectives on Southeast Asia. Despite the opening of Southeast Asian studies to the diverse methods of modern social sciences, descriptive studies prevail over analytical ones. Regardless of the diversification of subjects, national questions such as the overseas Chinese and cross-border nationalities are prone to excessive nationalism.

최근 경제위기들과 ASEAN 주요국의 무역

원용걸 ( Yong Kul Won )
한국동남아학회|동남아시아연구  20권 3호, 2010 pp. 41-64 ( 총 24 pages)
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The recent global financial crisis triggered by the sub-prime mortgage debacle in the United States hit hard most ASEAN countries that have just recovered from the unprecedented economic crisis ten years ago. This paper, using individual time-series and panel data from 1990 to 2009, intends to investigate and compare the impacts of the two aforementioned economic crises on trade in the four developing ASEAN countries that encompass Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand. In doing so, the paper traces the behaviors of main macroeconomic variables before and after the crises on graphs, and then estimates classical export and import demand functions that include real exchange rate, home and foreign GDPs as explanatory variables. In the estimation functions, two dummy variables are added to consider the effects of the two economic crises separately. Individual country data analyses reveal that by and large the 1997 economic crisis seems hit those ASEAN countries` exports and imports harder than the recent global financial crisis. Surprisingly the recent financial crisis turns out more or less statistically insignificant for those countries` export and import performances. The fixed effect model estimation using panel data of those four ASEAN countries also shows that the 1997 economic crisis had affected exports and imports of those countries negatively while the recent global financial crisis was not statistically significant. These results indicate that overall the effect from the 1997 crisis was more devastating than that of the recent global crisis for those ASEAN countries.
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One of main findings of the competitiveness relation is rapid increase of Chinese influence on the southeast Asian market. While Japanese market share is decreasing, Chinese market share is continuously increasing in the market. It is the same regardless of types of production phases. Analysis based on gravity model shows that in general Chinese exports is crowding out Korean and Japanese export to the market. The magnitude of the effects on Korean exports is larger than on Japanese exports. Also, It is found that the directions of the effect of Chinese exports on Korean and Japanese exports are different by production phrases. For all processed goods, increase of Chinese exports decreases both Korean and Japanese exports to the market. However, for some final goods such as transport equipment and food & beverages for household, Chinese exports is increasing Korean and Japanese exports to the market.

발전 속의 저발전 : 싱가포르 동남아연구 발전사

이상국 ( Sang Kook Lee )
한국동남아학회|동남아시아연구  20권 3호, 2010 pp. 101-145 ( 총 45 pages)
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초록보기
Southeast Asian studies in Singapore has had a problem with locating local scholarship from the outset. The initiation of English-track scholarship was done by British scholars while Chinese scholars in the beginning were not considered as local people but as sojourners who identified China as their fatherland. If the latter had successfully located their scholarship in the post-colonial environment of Singapore, the job of identifying local scholarship would have been much easier. Indeed, for some time in the 1960s-70s, there existed a relatively strong local scholarship that was based mainly at Nanyang University. However, they became marginalized as English became dominant not just in education but also in Singapore society. Unlike the Chinese-track scholarship, the English-track scholarship in Singapore has developed greatly over the years. The establishment of ISEAS was the crystallized form of Singapore`s endeavors to develop a Singapore brand of Southeast Asian studies to the world. Alongside ISEAS, NUS has carried on the English-track Southeast Asian studies and become a world-class university in this academic field. The formation of the Southeast Asian Programme and ARI marked a cornerstone for NUS in advancing Southeast Asian studies. However, Singaporean scholarship continues to be weak in comparison to foreign scholarship. In the absence of strong local scholarship, the typical way in which Singapore has chosen to develop Southeast Asian studies has been to establish world-class institutes and to bring in foreign talents. This strategy has perhaps paid off since it has situated Singapore as the prime place where scholars gather, information goes around and quality research outcomes are published. However, whether or not it has strengthened local scholarship remains a controversial issue. The dominant contribution of foreign scholars continues to pose the problem of whether the ownership of Southeast Asian studies in Singapore belongs to Singapore itself. The identification of scholarship in Singapore is an unsettled matter.

동남아의 인구변동: 1950-2050년

이성용 ( Sung Yong Lee )
한국동남아학회|동남아시아연구  20권 3호, 2010 pp. 147-182 ( 총 36 pages)
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초록보기
The purpose of this study is to examine the population changes in the nine Southeast Asian countries, including Cambodia, Lao People`s Democratic Republic, Philippine, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Vietnam, and Thailand. According to the demographic transition theory which described the transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates, the demographic changes in less developed countries, including the Southeast Asian countries, follow the general pattern of the population changes that the Western countries had experienced. However, this theory does not consider the fact that the demographic behaviors such as fertility and mortality tend to be ethnocentric (or particular). Therefore, I examine in this paper both the generality and particularity of the population changes in the Southeast Asia. The analytic results are consistent with my assumptions. Every country in the Southeast Asia will soon reach the third phrase of the demographic transition and meet population ageing process. However, the timings arriving at the third phrase can differ. Singapore which is the most developed country had firstly passed through the demographic transition and the highest level of population ageing. Cambodia and Lao People`s Democratic Republic, the least developed countries, will lastly arrive at the third phrase and the ageing society. In addition, among the three countries which had experienced war or civil war, only Cambodia had experienced babyboom.
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초록보기
본 연구의 목적은 2008년 후반에 발생한 국제금융위기에 대응하여 조직 개편을 선택한 기업과 그 기업 내의 근로자들 실태 파악을 하는데 있다. 특히 기업구조조정 명목으로 단행된 해고를 모면한 근로자들 (생존자)의 상태를 그들이 지각하는 각 개인의 관리자에 대한 만족도와 그들의 직무관련태도인 직무만족, 조직적 몰입 그리고 이직 의도 간의 관계 관점에서 살피고자 한다. 관리자에 대한 만족도는 근로자들의 직무 관련 태도 변수와 관련되어 사회적 선행변수로 선택되었으며 직무관련태도는 결과변수로 선택하였다. 본 연구를 통해 생존자들의 조직 내 직무관련태도에 관한 이해를 높이는데 필요한 정보를 표출해내어 그들의 실태를 파악하는데 하나의 목적을 두었으며 그들의 관리자와의 사회적 관계가 그들에게 미치는 영향을 파악하는 것이 또 하나의 목적이라 하겠다. 이상과 같은 관계 파악을 통해 얻은 정보로 관련기업이 단기적으로 성공적인 자립을 하여 장기적으로 경쟁력 있는 조직으로 성장할 수 있는 인적자원전략을 제공하는데 2차적인 목적을 두고 있다. 본 연구는 이상과 같은 목적을 달성하고자 그 유의성이 증명된 현존하는 설문을 활용한 조사기법을 채택하여 실증연구를 하였다. 수집한 자료는 SPSS 17.0과 LISREL 8.5을 사용하여 연구모형과 연구의 가설들을 검증하였다. 연구목적을 달성하고자 채택된 가설들은 기존의 문헌연구를 토대로 세워졌다. 연구대상은 태국 북부지역의 대표도시인 치앙마이 내 관광호텔 종사자들로서 외부적으로는 2008년 국제금융위기와 그에 따른 경제침체, 내부적으로는 극심한 정치적·사회적 불안에 의한 관광객의 급감소와 조직의 자구책으로 행해진 조직재구조 차원에서의 해고를 이겨낸 근로자들, 즉 생존자들이었다. 가설검증을 통해 입증된 연구결과에 의하면 1) 근로자들의 관리자에 대한 만족은 그들의 직무만족, 정서적 조직몰입과 지속적 조직몰입에 영향을 미치는 것으로 검증됐다. 2) 근로자들의 관리자에 대한 만족은 그들의 이직의도에는 영향을 미치지 못하는 것으로 검증됐다. 3) 근로자들의 직무만족은 그들의 이직의도에 영향을 미치는 것으로 검증되었다. 4) 근로자들의 조직적 몰입과 이직의도 간의 관계에 있어서는 오직 경제적 성격의 지속적 조직몰입만 영향을 미치는 것으로 검증되었다. 이러한 연구 결과는 기존의 타 연구 결과와 기본적인 맥락은 같게 나왔으나 근로자들의 정서적인 면의 부재는 2008년 후반 당시의 독특한 태국의 사회적, 경제적 그리고 문화적 실태를 보여주는 것이 아닌가 사료된다. 특히 근로자들이 그들의 직장과의 관계와 관련된 의사결정을 가치가 아닌 경제적인 요소에 의존한다는 결과 그리고 상관인 관리자가 이러한 태도에 전혀 영향력을 미치지 못한다는 결과는 전통적으로 감성적이며 집단주의적인 동양적 문화가 지배하리라고 예상했던 태국에서는 이례적인 결과였다. 그러나 관리자들이 그들의 직무만족 그리고 조직적 몰입에 영향을 주며 직무만족이 이직 의도에 영향을 미친다는 결과와 지속적 조직몰입이 이직의도에 영향을 미친다는 결과는 장기적으로 적극적인 관리자 교육을 통해 근로자들을 조직에 정서적으로도 올바르게 안착시키고 긍정적인 구성원으로 존재하면서 조직에 기여할 수 있는 그들의 역할을 기대할 수 있다고 볼 수도 있다. 이 점은 매우 중요한데 그 이유는 해고를 이겨낸 근로자들은 그 조직이 미래를 짊어지는 마지막 기대변수이기 때문이다.

머리카락에서 물을 짜내는 지모신 형상의 기원과 변모에 관한 연구

노장서 ( Jang Suh Noh )
한국동남아학회|동남아시아연구  20권 3호, 2010 pp. 223-262 ( 총 40 pages)
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초록보기
This paper has been written to find facts about the image of earth goddess broadly found in the Southeast Asia. The research findings are as follows: Firstly, the image of earth goddess wringing her hair is phenomenally discovered in both Buddhist temple murals and independent shrines in Thailand. This phenomenon is common in other Indochinese Buddhist countries such as Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia. Secondly, the life of Buddha including the story of the victory over Mara is found in such Buddhist canons as Mahavastu, Buddhacarita, Lalitavistara, Nidanakatha and Patamasambodhi. Among the canons, the story of the victory over Mara is described in differently ways. Earth becomes personified as the goddess in later version. The main cause to expel Mara`s army also changes from sound to water. Patamasambodhi is most closely associated with the iconography of the earth goddess of Southeast Asia. Thirdly, Vessantara Jataka and Indian ancient customs tell us that a merit maker performs a rite of pouring water on the earth as an evidence for merit-making. This rite is a key to understanding the meaning of the scene where the earth goddess expels Mara`s army into the flood by wringing her hair. The earth goddess is personified from the earth upon which the merit water is poured. Water soaked in her hair is the very holy water poured by the Buddha whenever he made a merit in his former lives. The amount of water flowed from the hair of the earth goddess representing the amount of his merit making was so huge and enough to defeat the Mara`s army and for the Buddha to reach the Enlightenment. This legend explains the significance of the notion of merit in the Theravada Buddhist countries such as Thailand and Myanmar where the water pouring rites still take place and the images of the hair wringing earth goddess are commonly discovered. Fourthly, the first image of the earth goddess as the witness of merits for the Buddha appeared in some Gandharan Buddhist sculptures in the form of devotional gesture with her both hands pressed together and the upper half of her body above the ground. The appearance is in accordance with the description of her in the Lalitavistara canon. In later periods, the form changed into various types and finally the image of the earth goddess wringing her hair appeared in Southeast Asia around 11 century C.E. Some researchers argue this image form of the earth goddess shows the influence from China or India. However, the arguments are considered to be hypothetical as they have no strong evidence to prove. Finally, the modern image of earth goddess shows richer and more dynamic expression compared with its predecessors. Especially, outstanding is the standing earth goddess images found in the scene of the victory over Mara in many temple murals of central region of Thailand. The earth goddess in her voluptuous body shape is usually depicted as wringing her hair with her arms wide open in a posture of S curve. This appearance strongly reminds us of the postures of Salabhanjika and Tribhanga originated from Indian art. The adoption presumably has been made to signify her fertile and affluent characteristics.

6-7세기의 동남아 힌두 미술 -인도 힌두미술의 전파와 초기의 변용-

강희정 ( Hee Jung Kang )
한국동남아학회|동남아시아연구  20권 3호, 2010 pp. 263-297 ( 총 35 pages)
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초록보기
The relics of the Southeast Asian civilizations in the first phase are found with the relics from India, China, and even further West of Persia and Rome. These relics are the historic marks of the ancient interactions of various continents, mainly through the maritime trade. The traces of the indic culture, which appears in the historic age, are represented in the textual records and arts, regarded as the essence of the India itself. The ancient Hindu arts found in various locations of Southeast Asia were thought to be transplanted directly from India. However, Neither did the Gupta Hindu Art of India form the mainstream of the Gupta Art, nor did it play an influential role in the adjacent areas. The Indian culture was transmitted to Southeast Asia rather intermittently than consistently. If we thoroughly compare the early Hindu art of India and that of Southeast Asia, we can find that the latter was influenced by the former, but still sustained Southeast Asian originality. The reason that the earliest Southeast Asian Hindu art is discovered mostly in continental Southeast Asia is resulted from the fact that the earliest networks between India and the region were constructed in this region. Among the images of Hindu gods produced before the 7th century are Shiva, Vishnu, Harihara, and Skanda(the son of Shiva), and Ganesha(the god of wealth). The earliest example of Vishnu was sculpted according to the Kushan style. After that, most of the sculptures came to have robust figures and graceful proportions. There are a small number of images of Ganesha and Skanda. These images strictly follow the iconography of the Indian sculpture. This shows that Southeast Asians chose their own Hindu gods from the Hindu pantheon selectively and devoted their faiths to them. Their basic iconography obediently followed the Indian model, but they tried to transform parts of the images within the Southeast Asian contexts. However, it is very difficult to understand the process of the development of the Hindu faith and its contents in the ancient Southeast Asia. It is because there are very few undamaged Hindu temples left in Southeast Asia. It is also difficult to make sure that the Hindu religion of India, which was based on the complex rituals and the caste system, was transplanted to Southeast Asia, because there were no such strong basis of social structure and religion in the region. "Indianization" is an organized expansion of the Indian culture based on the sense of belonging to an Indian context. This can be defined through the process of transmission and progress of the Hindu or Buddhist religions, legends about purana, and the influx of various epic expression and its development. Such conditions are represented through the Sanskrit language and the art. It is the element of the Indian culture to fabricate an image of god as a devotional object. However, if we look into details of the iconography, style, and religious culture, these can be understood as a "selective reception of foreign religious culture." There were no sophisticated social structure yet to support the Indian culture to continue in Southeast Asia around the 7th century. Whether this phenomena was an "Indianization" or the "influx of elements of Indian culture," it was closely related to the matter of `localization.` The regional character of each local region in Southeast Asia is partially shown after the 8th century. However it is not clear whether this culture was settled in each region as its dominant culture. The localization of the Indian culture in Southeast Asia which acted as a network connecting ports or cities was a part of the process of localization of Indian culture in pan-Southeast Asian region, and the process of the building of the basis for establishing an identity for each Southeast Asian region.
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