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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

동남아시아연구검색

The Southeast Asian Review


  • - 주제 : 사회과학분야 > 인문지리
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 계간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1229-6899
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 22권 3호 (2012)

동아시아 국가의 환율변동 요인 분석

이종하 ( Jong Ha Lee ) , 이충열 ( Choong Lyol Lee )
한국동남아학회|동남아시아연구  22권 3호, 2012 pp. 1-37 ( 총 37 pages)
7,700
초록보기
This paper investigates common factors of exchange rates volatility in East Asia using the common indexes made by principal component analysis. We employ a structural VAR model to separate underlying factors into global, regional and individual shocks. As a result, we find that the mainly cause of exchange rate volatility is individual factor in East Asian foreign exchange market, and global and regional factors are relatively responsible for small. In case of Japan, domestic phenomenon explains most of volatility. It is play a dominant role in the others, too, but they are different from a weight composition of volatility. The volatility of China, Malaysia and Singapore is mainly explained by regional factors. On the other hands, Korea, Indonesia, Thailand and Philippine caused by global factors. In addition, to consider time-varying effects, we separate the sample period by before and after global financial crisis. The estimation results show that Indonesia has not changed much, but other countries have changed quite a bit. In the foreign exchange market of Korea and Philippine, domestic effects decline and global effects increase. The weight of regional factors in Malaysia reduces and global factors rise. In China and Thailand, the factor caused by global market is decreased but the volatility caused by domestic factor is increased.

19세기 전반 베트남에서의 ‘고려인삼’

최병욱 ( Byung Wook Choi )
한국동남아학회|동남아시아연구  22권 3호, 2012 pp. 39-73 ( 총 35 pages)
7,500
초록보기
본 연구에서는 19세기 전반 특히 민망-티에우찌 시기 (1820-1847) 베트남으로의 고려 인삼 유입 경로를 파악하고 인삼이 베트남 내에서 어떤 기능을 수행했는가를 밝히고 있다. 인삼의 이동로로 육로와 해로가 있었다. 조선에서 출발한 인삼은 사행단을 따라 북경으로 이동했다. 공품 고려인삼은 청조의 예부를 통해 황제의 하사품으로 베트남에 주어졌으며 베트남 사절은 북경에서 고려 인삼을 약포나 상인으로부터 구입하기도 했다. 이렇게 해서 입수된 인삼은 사신의 행로를 따라 육로를 통해 베트남으로 전해졌다. 해로 이동의 경우 대부분은 불법 무역을 통한 유출이었다. 황해 해상을 통해 조선 인삼은 중국 밀무역 업자들에게 넘겨지고 바다를 건너간 인삼은 다시 연안 해로를 따라 광동으로까지 이동했다. 북경에서 거래된 합법적 인삼이 해로를 통해 광동으로 이동하는 경우도 물론 있었다. 당시 중국의 유일한 대외무역항이었던 광주로는 매년 베트남에서 채매단이 파견되었고 이곳에서 고려인삼이 구입되었음을 이 연구는 논구하고 있다. 응우옌 왕조 초기 유명한 남북 학자 찐화이득 (Trinh Hoai Duc)과 팜딘호 (Pham einh Ho)를 시작으로 중앙 및 지방의 고위직 관료들에게 병 치료, 노부모에게의 선물 등 목적으로 고려인삼이 지급되었다. 인삼은 충과 효를 이끌어내고 진작시키는 재료로 사용되었다. 그러나 효의 최종적 목표는 충인 것이니 문신 관료에의 인삼 하사의 효과는 충의 진작으로 귀일되는 것으로서 19세기 국가 이념의 강화에 인삼이 사용되었던 것이라 해석될 수 있겠다. 더군다나 인삼은 베트남의 시각으로 볼 때 ‘문헌지방’ 조선에서 온 것이어서 인삼은 인삼 그 자체로서의 약효와 유교적 이념의 구현체라는 두 가지 요소가 한데 모인 주술성을 갖기도 했다. 국가체제를 위협하는 남북의 제 반란은 물론이려니와 타이 군대와의 전투, 캄보디아 정복전 등에 파견된 장군 및 병사들에게도 인삼은 부지런히 지급되었다. 프랑스의 침입이 시작되었을 때도 전장에 고려인삼이 갔다. 남북의 제 반란은 중앙집권화, 소수민족 동화정책 등 민망-티에우찌 시기에 야심 차게 추진된 제 정책의 결과물이었다. 타이 및 캄보디아 군과의 충돌은 1830년대 중반의 캄보디아 병합 과정에서 야기된 것이었다. 베트남의 장군, 병사들은 인삼의 힘을 통해 유교적 이념이 지배하는 국가 체제를 수호하고 확장하는 첨병으로 기능할 것이 기대되었다. 마지막으로 이 논문은 인삼구매를 가능하게 한 베트남 조정의 능동성을 강조하고 있다. 북경을 통한 인삼 취득은 극히 적은 수량이었을 뿐이다. 대부분의 인삼은 ‘여동공무 (如東公務)’를 통해 광동에서 구매되었던 것으로 인식되는데 광동 방문은 하주공무 (下洲公務)와 짝하여 민망-티에우찌 시기에 적극 추진되던 해외 정세 탐지 및 선진 물자 구매의 일환이었다. 한국, 중국, 일본 등 동북아시아에서 맴돌던 인삼 유통의 지도가 19세기에 들어서 베트남까지 확대된 것이니 이는 민망-티에우찌 시기 적극적으로 추진되던 대외접촉의 결과였다라고 볼 수 있는 것이다.

필리핀 대학교육의 역사와 현황 그리고 개혁방향

김동엽 ( Dong Yeob Kim ) , 정법모 ( Bub Mo Jung )
한국동남아학회|동남아시아연구  22권 3호, 2012 pp. 77-110 ( 총 34 pages)
7,400
초록보기
The current situation of higher education in the Philippines can be summarized as the rapid increase in number of HEIs(Higher Education Institutes), the polarization of the education quality, and the current deferment of educational development. The soaring number of HEIs has been backed up by the autonomous establishment and management of private sector, and also by the marketization of higher education. Further, the quality control of higher education has been also the task of private sector, which has made the state level of control difficult. The benefit and financial support for HEIs which are selected by government tend to be focused on certain prominent schools, which accelerate the bi-polarization of higher education. In the Philippines with high poverty rate, it becomes more difficult for students from lower class to access the higher education with good quality, and the economic and social class difference becomes more solid through such an unequal educational opportunity, In response to educational issues, Philippine government has tried various remedies, however, the trial hasn`t had a significant outcome because of unsteady political will for the educational reformation and the scarce financial support. The current Aquino administration recognizes that the higher education is the key to successful economic development and to the equal society. Thus the government has actively shown the vision and has implemented the plan. Though, it still needs an attention before judging whether it draws the cooperation from the conservative political parties and it would have fruitful outcomes.

베트남 고등교육의 역사와 제도

정연식 ( Yeon Sik Jeong ) , 배양수 ( Yang Soo Bae )
한국동남아학회|동남아시아연구  22권 3호, 2012 pp. 111-155 ( 총 45 pages)
12,000
초록보기
Vietnam has achieved a remarkable progress in many areas since the launch of Doi Moi policies in 1986. Education, higher education in particular, is one of the areas that went through dramatic changes. Propelled by the Confucius tradition that renders extraordinary value upon education plus the competitive environment that the market economy brought in, the increasing demand for college education has resulted in an exponential growth in the number of colleges and universities. With the household income increasing, the demand for college education is very likely to continue. After reviewing thoroughly the history of higher education in Vietnam which took its shape as early as 11th century and survived the three decades of war, this study conducts a survey on the structure, rules and regulations including curriculum parameters, and achievements of the higher education in today`s Vietnam. Vietnam is a country where the central government takes the helm in most areas of administration with relatively less autonomy given to individual institutions. The high degree of centralization has resulted in standardized rules and regulations governing all degree programs in the country. In reality, however, the government capacity to regulate college education seems to have been unable to match the growing number of colleges. As a result, some of the institutions fall short of providing education at the level required by law. In addition, the government expenditure on tertiary education also fails to outpace the increasing number of students, leaving the educational environment unimproved. The Vietnamese government has recently promulgated new laws and regulations on college education in an effort to tackle these problems. It remains to be seen how the government effort contributes to the development of college education in Vietnam.

태국 고등교육의 역사와 발전 과제

박경은 ( Kyung Eun Park )
한국동남아학회|동남아시아연구  22권 3호, 2012 pp. 157-194 ( 총 38 pages)
7,800
초록보기
Ancient Thai Education was primarily conducted in the Buddhist temples and it was not until the seventeenth century when the first Western-style school was built in Thailand. The modern higher education, which used to be available only to the elite of the society or to governmental officials for training purposes, has become more open to the general population and, as a result, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of beneficiaries of modern higher education. Currently, the total number of higher education institutions that are registered with the Higher Education Commission at the Thai Ministry of Education amounts to 170, and more than 2 million students are enrolled in higher education institutions as of 2011. During the wave of industrialization from the end of the 1970s through the 1980s, the Thai government focused on the quantitative expansion of its higher education. However, the focus shifted to fostering qualitative growth in higher education and producing graduates with a better quality of education after the government underwent an economic crisis at the end of the 1990s which made it become keenly aware of the need for qualitative improvement in its education system. "The second 15-Year Long Range Plan on Higher Education (2008-2022)” reflects the Thai government`s efforts to adjust Thai higher education to domestic and international circumstantial changes, and satisfy its need for globalization and provide Thai students with better quality higher education. However, some critics of the Thai government`s plan for higher education fear that autonomization of universities can result in the commercialization of universities and the ill-prepared but profitable degree programs created by some universities which can produce subpar graduates, creating a major obstacle against qualitative growth of Thai higher education in the future. Therefore, in order to have qualitative growth in higher education that leads the nation`s political, economic, societal and cultural development, it appears that it is necessary for the Thai government to arrange a more comprehensive and fundamental measure for those issues.

말레이시아와 싱가포르 고등교육정책 변화의 정치경제

황인원 ( In Won Hwang ) , 김형종 ( Hyung Jong Kim ) , 김지훈 ( Jae Hun Kim )
한국동남아학회|동남아시아연구  22권 3호, 2012 pp. 195-239 ( 총 45 pages)
12,000
초록보기
This study examines history, current status and development of higher educational policies in Malaysia and Singapore. In particular, this study pays attention on policy changes and internationalization strategies since the late 1990s. Malaysia and Singapore, both as multi-ethnic societies and newly established states, was once one country before the separation in 1965. However, political factors such as nation-building and economic factors such as competitiveness have shaped different paths for these two countries. This paper raises following research questions. What are the policy changes of higher education in these two countries in the post-separation era? What are the commonalities and the differences? What are the future prospects? This study finds that development of higher education in Malaysia and Singapore was strongly influenced by political economic factors of both domestic and international environments. Although two countries were common in that the role of the state has been strong as both had to go through nation-building, higher education policies in Malaysia was much more influenced by political factor as it has adopted the ethnic quota system for preferential treatment for its ethnic Malays, Also the two countries differed their polices in responses to higher education needs since 1990s. Malaysia expanded private educational market and steered international competitiveness centering on state universities. In contrast, Singapore slowly expanded size of state universities and pursued the quality of state universities. Recent development of international strategies of higher education in these countries reveals implications for future discussion on quality and direction of higher education in Korea and other Southeast Asian countries, as well as global level discussion on internationalization of higher education.

인도네시아의 대학교육: 발전을 위한 개혁과 도전

전제성 ( Je Seong Jeon )
한국동남아학회|동남아시아연구  22권 3호, 2012 pp. 241-284 ( 총 44 pages)
11,900
초록보기
Created in the early 20th century under the Dutch colonial authorities, university education in Indonesia has expanded rapidly since the independence in 1945. Economic crisis and democratization in the late 1990s became momentum for education reform in Indonesia. Since then the Indonesian government had pursued enhancing accessibility, relevance and autonomy of higher education through various ways. Currently, Indonesia`s higher education has faced some challenges, For example, the World Bank suggested higher education in Indonesia strengthen its role to supply skills and research for economic growth, especially to meet corporations` need, like other East Asian middle income countries. In addition, in a broader sense, universities also contribute to political, social and cultural developments through their academic contribution and knowledge sharing in the society. Freedom in academic activities and democracy within universities are needed for cultivating academic culture. Knowledge accumulation and sharing system such as online digitalization will be also formed as a vital infrastructure for future development of higher education in Indonesia.
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