This study focused on the organizational commitment of local workers employed by Korean firms and Japanese firms in China. In order to compare the differences of the organizational commitment in the Korean and Japanese firms, we used the independent variables such as (1) personal characteristics, (2) task-related characteristics, (3) structural characteristics, (4) socio-cultural characteristics. The findings of this study are as follows: Firs of all, the affective commitment of local workers in Korean Firms and Japanese firms was found to be no difference, but the continuance commitment of local workers was found to be significantly different in Korean and Japanese firms. The continuance commitment of local workers in Japanese firms was significantly higher than that of in Korean firms. Secondly, in the socio-cultural variables, the types of management which the workers perceived was found to be significantly different in Korean and Japanese firms. Thirdly, the employment insecurity, one of factors of the organizational structure variables, doesn`t have the significant influence on affective commitment or continuance commitment in Korean firms. Fourth, the cultural distance-one of the socio-cultural factors, has no significant influence on affective commitment in Japanese firms or continuance commitment in Korean firms. Finally, the affective commitment of the workers perceived has a significant difference in the personal characteristics such as the sex, registration and the number of service year.