Purpose: The study has been conducted to identify factors affecting the participation in leisure activities by elderly women living alone. Methods: Data were collected through a questionnaire survey among 150 elderly women in Seoul and Gyeong-gi Province. The measurement tools that were used include participation in leisure activities, perceived health status, Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form-Korea (GDSS-K), psychological well-being scale, and loneliness scale. The data were analyzed by using the Pearson correlation coefficients, t-test, analysis of variance ANOVA, and stepwise multiple regression with the SPSS/windows version 21.0 program. Results: The analysis shows that the affection for participation in leisure activities of the elderly women living alone who participated in the questionnaire survey is significant (F=14.6, p<.001). The value of the adjusted R2 is 0.55, which accounts for the explanatory power of 55.4%. The predictor that has been found to have the greatest influence on the participation in leisure activities by the elderly women living alone include perceived health status, followed by monthly allowance (10,000 won), psychological well-being, economic status, religion, depression, family structure, and loneliness. Conclusion: The results suggest that in developing nursing interventions and practice for the participation in leisure activities by elderly women living alone, perceived health status, psychological well-being, depression, and loneliness should be considered.