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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology검색

Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology


  • - 주제 : 자연과학분야 > 생물
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 월간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : SCI / SCOPUS
  • - ISSN : 1017-7825
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 19권 1호 (2009)

Inhella inkyongensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a New Freshwater Bacterium in the Order Burkholderiales

( Jae Ho Song ) , ( Hyun Myung Oh ) , ( Jung Sook Lee ) , ( Seung Buhm Woo ) , ( Jang Cheon Cho )
4,000
초록보기
A freshwater bacterium, designated IMCC1713T, was isolated from a highly eutrophic artificial pond. Cells of the strain were Gram-negative, chemoheterotrophic, poly-β-hydroxybutyrate granule containing and obligately aerobic short rods that were motile with a single polar flagellum. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis showed that the novel strain was most closely related to the species Roseateles depolymerans (96.3%), Mitsuaria chitosanitabida (96.2%), Ideonella dechloratans (96.2%), and Pelomonas saccharophila (96.1%) in the Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group within the order Burkholderiales. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate formed an independent monophyletic clade within the order Burkholderiales. The relatively low DNA G+C content (57.4 mol%), together with several phenotypic characteristics, differentiated the novel strain from other members of the Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group. From the taxonomic data, therefore, the strain should be classified as a novel genus and species, for which the name Inhella inkyongensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the proposed species is strain IMCC1713T (=KCTC 12791T=NBRC 103252T=CCUG 54308T).
4,000
초록보기
Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of rice blast, forms a specialized infection structure, called an appressorium, which is crucial for penetration and infection of the host plant. Pharmacological data suggest that calcium/calmodulin-dependent signaling is involved in appressorium formation in this fungus. To understand the role of the calcium/calmodulin-activated protein phosphatase on appressorium formation at the molecular level, MCNA, a gene encoding the catalytic subunit of calcineurin, was functionally characterized in M. oryzae. Transformants expressing sense/antisense RNA of MCNA exhibited significant reductions in mycelial growth, conidiation, appressorium formation, and pathogenicity. cDNA of MCNA functionally complemented a calcineurin disruptant strain (cmp1::LEU2 cmp2::HIS3) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These data suggest that calcineurin A plays important roles in signal transduction pathways involved in the infection-related morphogenesis and pathogenicity of M. oryzae.

Thiosulfate Oxidation and Mixotrophic Growth of Methylobacterium goesingense and Methylobacterium fujisawaense

( R. Anandham ) , ( P. Indiragandhi ) , ( M. Madhaiyan ) , ( Jong Bae Chung ) , ( Kyoung Yul Ryu ) , ( Hyeong Jin Jee ) , ( Tong Min Sa )
4,000
초록보기
The mixotrophic growth with methanol plus thiosulfate was examined in nutrient-limited mixotrophic condition for Methylobacterium goesingense CBMB5 and Methylobacterium fujisawaense CBMB37. Thiosulfate oxidation increased the growth and protein yield in mixotrophic medium that contained 150mM methanol and 20mM sodium thiosulfate, at 144 h. Respirometric study revealed that thiosulfate was the most preferable reduced inorganic sulfur source, followed by sulfite and sulfur. M. goesingense CBMB5 and M. fujisawaense CBMB37 oxidized thiosulfate directly to sulfate, and intermediate products of thiosulfate oxidation such as polythionates, sulfite, and sulfur were not detected in spent medium and they did not yield positive amplification for tested soxB primers. Enzymes of thiosulfate oxidation such as rhodanese and sulfite oxidase activities were detected in cell-free extracts of M. goesingense CBMB5, and M. fujisawaense CBMB37, and thiosulfate oxidase (tetrathionate synthase) activity was not observed. It indicated that both the organisms use the "non-S4 intermediate" sulfur oxidation pathway for thiosulfate oxidation. It is concluded from this study that M. goesingense CBMB5, and M. fujisawaense CBMB37 exhibited mixotrophic metabolism in medium containing methanol plus thiosulfate and that thiosulfate oxidation and the presence of a "Paracoccus sulfur oxidation" (PSO) pathway in methylotrophic bacteria are species dependant.

Investigation of the Central Carbon Metabolism of Sorangium cellulosum: Metabolic Network Reconstruction and Quantification of Pathway Fluxes

( Christoph J. Bolten ) , ( Elmar Heinzle ) , ( Rolf Muller ) , ( Christoph Wittmann )
4,900
초록보기
In the present work, the metabolic network of primary metabolism of the slow-growing myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum was reconstructed from the annotated genome sequence of the type strain So ce56. During growth on glucose as the carbon source and asparagine as the nitrogen source, So ce56 showed a very low growth rate of 0.23 d-1, equivalent to a doubling time of 3 days. Based on a complete stoichiometric and isotopomer model of the central metabolism, 13C metabolic flux analysis was carried out for growth with glucose as carbon and asparagine as nitrogen sources. Normalized to the uptake flux for glucose (100%), cells recruited glycolysis (51%) and the pentose phosphate pathway (48%) as major catabolic pathways. The Entner-Doudoroff pathway and glyoxylate shunt were not active. A high flux through the TCA cycle (118%) enabled a strong formation of ATP, but cells revealed a rather low yield for biomass. Inspection of fluxes linked to energy metabolism revealed that S. cellulosum utilized only 10% of the ATP formed for growth, whereas 90% is required for maintenance. This explains the apparent discrepancy between the relatively low biomass yield and the high flux through the energy-delivering TCA cycle. The total flux of NADPH supply (216%) was higher than the demand for anabolism (156%), indicating additional reactions for balancing of NADPH. The cells further exhibited a highly active metabolic cycle, interconverting C3 and C4 metabolites of glycolysis and the TCA cycle. The present work provides the first insight into fluxes of the primary metabolism of myxobacteria, especially for future investigation on the supply of cofactors, building blocks, and energy in myxobacteria, producing natural compounds of biotechnological interest.
4,000
초록보기
Previous studies have demonstrated that Shewanella decolorationis S12 can grow on the azo compound amaranth as the sole electron acceptor. Thus, to explore the mechanism of energy generation in this metabolism, membranous vesicles (MVs) were prepared and the mechanism of energy generation was investigated. The membrane, which was fragmentized during preparation, automatically formed vesicles ranging from 37.5-112.5 nm in diameter under electron micrograph observation. Energy was conserved when coupling the azoreduction by the MVs of an azo compound or Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor with H2, formate, or lactate as the electron donor. The amaranth reduction by the vesicles was found to be inhibited by specific respiratory inhibitors, including Cu2+ ions, dicumarol, stigmatellin, and metyrapone, indicating that the azoreduction was indeed a respiration reaction. This finding was further confirmed by the fact that the ATP synthesis was repressed by the ATPase inhibitor N,N`-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD). Therefore, this study offers solid evidence of a mechanism of microbial dissimilatory azoreduction on a subcell level.

Diverse Antibacterial Activity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Isolated in Korea

( Eun Jung Roh ) , ( Seung Don Lee ) , ( Yong Hoon Lee ) , ( Dong Su Ra ) , ( Jae Hyuk Choi ) , ( Eun Pyo Moon ) , ( Sung Gi Heu )
4,000
초록보기
Fifty-four Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. Carotovorum strains isolated in Korea were characterized by a spectrum of antibacterial activities against 7 indicator strains chosen to represent various regions and host plants. All P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum isolates tested could be grouped into 4 classes depending on the pattern of antibacterial substance production. All tested strains had DNA fragment(s) homologous to the genes encoding carotovoricin and 21 of them had genes homologous to DNA invertase. Sixteen strains had genes homologous to the genes encoding carocin S1. Several isolates produced antibacterial substances active against strains in Brenneria, Pantoea, and Pectobacterium genera that belonged formerly to the genus Erwinia. Strains in Pseudomonas or Xanthomonas sp. were not sensitive to the antibacterial substances produced by P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, except for X. albilineans that was sensitive to antibacterial substances produced by most strains in P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and P. betavasculorum KACC10056. These results demonstrated the diverse patterns of antibacterial substance production and the possibility of the existence of new antibacterial substance(s) produced by P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum isolated in Korea.

LC-MS/MS Profiling-Based Secondary Metabolite Screening of Myxococcus xanthus

( Ji Young Kim ) , ( Jung Nam Choi ) , ( Pil Kim ) , ( Dai Eun Sok ) , ( Soo Wan Nam ) , ( Choong Hwan Lee )
1,000
초록보기
Myxobacteria, Gram-negative soil bacteria, are a well-known producer of bioactive secondary metabolites. Therefore, this study presents a methodological approach for the high-throughput screening of secondary metabolites from 4 wild-type Myxococcus xanthus strains. First, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was performed using extracellular crude extracts. As a result, 22 metabolite peaks were detected, and the metabolite profiling was then conducted using the m/z value, retention time, and MS/MS fragmentation pattern analyses. Among the peaks, one unknown compound peak was identified as analogous to the myxalamid A, B, and C series. An analysis of the tandem mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns and HR-MS identified myxalamid K as a new compound derived from M. xanthus. In conclusion, LC-MS/MS-based chemical screening of diverse secondary metabolites would appear to be an effective approach for discovering unknown microbial secondary metabolites.

Characteristics of B-Cell-Specific Growth Substance Produced by Bacillus Licheniformis E1

( Joo Young Kim ) , ( Kun Sub Chung ) , ( Jeon Han Park ) , ( Yi Sub Kwak ) , ( Bong Ki Lee )
4,000
초록보기
A B cell-specific growth substance (BGS) was isolated from the slime layer of Bacillus licheniformis E1. Unlike LPS, the BGS was not affected by polymixin B, an inhibitor of LPS, or by TLR4, and resulted in the growth of B cells. When BALB/c mice were treated with the BGS, the B cell population was found to increase in both the bone marrow and the spleen, with a marked increase after 24 h in the bone marrow and after 48 h in the spleen. When using antibodies to B cell lineage-restricted surface molecules to analyze the B cell population changes resulting from treatment with the BGS, an increase in immature B cells (IgM+ and AA4.1+) and mature B cells (IgM+ and IgD+) was found in the bone marrow 24 h after treatment with the BGS, whereas a decrease in mature B cells and increase in IgG+ B cells were found in the spleen. When the BGS and OVA antigen were injected into the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice, this resulted in a high OVA-specific antibody titer in the sera, similar to that induced by aluminum hydroxide. Therefore, it is anticipated that the mass production of the BGS by B. licheniformis E1 could be used for studies of B cells in immunology, and contribute to the development of a new adjuvant for vaccine manufacture.
초록보기
Microbial oxidoreductive systems have been widely used in asymmetric syntheses of optically active alcohols. However, when reused in multi-batch reaction, the catalytic efficiency and sustainability of non-growing cells usually decreased because of continuous consumption of required cofactors during the reaction process. A novel method for NADPH regeneration in cells was proposed by using pentose metabolism in microorganisms. Addition of D-xylose, L-arabinose, or D-ribose to the reaction significantly improved the conversion efficiency of deracemization of racemic 1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol to (S)-isomer by Candida parapsilosis cells already used once, which afforded the product with high optical purity over 97%e.e. in high yield over 85% under an increased substrate concentration of 15 g/l. Compared with reactions without xylose, xylose added to multi-batch reactions had no influence on the activity of the enzyme catalyzing the key step in deracemization, but performed a promoting effect on the recovery of the metabolic activity of the non-growing cells with its consumption in each batch. The detection of activities of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase from cell-free extract of C. parapsilosis made xylose metabolism feasible in cells, and the depression of the pentose phosphate pathway inhibitor to this reaction further indicated that xylose facilitated the NADPH-required deracemization through the pentose phosphate pathway in C. parapsilosis. moreover, by investigating the cofactor pool, the xylose addition in reaction batches giving more NADPH, compared with those without xylose, suggested that the higher catalytic efficiency and sustainability of C. parapsilosis non-growing cells had resulted from xylose metabolism recycling NADPH for the deracemization.

Improving the Productivity of Recombinant Protein in Escherichia coli Under Thermal Stress by Coexpressing GroELS Chaperone System

( So Yeon Kim ) , ( Niraikulam Ayyadurai ) , ( Mi Ae Heo ) , ( Sung Hoon Park ) , ( Yong Joo Jeong ) , ( Sun Gu Lee )
4,000
초록보기
Here, we demonstrate that the overexpression of the GroELS chaperone system, which assists the folding of intracellular proteins and prevents aggregation of its biological targets, can enhance the thermotolerance of Escherichia coli strains and facilitate the production of recombinant protein under thermal stress. The overexpression of GroELS led to an about 2-fold higher growth rate of E. coli XL-1 blue than control at 45℃ and induced the growth of the strain even at 50℃, although the growth was not sustained in the second-round culture. The effect of GroELS overexpression was also effective on other E. coli strains such as JM109, DH5α, and BL21. Finally, we have shown that coexpression of GroELS allows us to produce recombinant protein even at 50℃, a temperature at which the protein production based on E. coli is not efficient. This study indicates that the employment of the GroELS overexpression system can expand the range of environmental conditions for E. coli.
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