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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

한국미생물·생명공학회지검색

Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters


  • - 주제 : 자연과학분야 > 생물
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 계간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : - / SCOPUS
  • - ISSN : 1598-642x
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 : 산업미생물학회지(~2001)→한국미생물·생명공학회지(2002~)
논문제목
수록 범위 : 47권 1호 (2019)

Microbiome of Halophytes: Diversity and Importance for Plant Health and Productivity

( Salma Mukhtar ) , ( Kauser Abdulla Malik ) , ( Samina Mehnaz )
4,500
초록보기
Saline soils comprise more than half a billion hectares worldwide. Thus, they warrant attention for their efficient, economical, and environmentally acceptable management. Halophytes are being progressively utilized for human benefits. The halophyte microbiome contributes significantly to plant performance and can provide information regarding complex ecological processes involved in the osmoregulation of halophytes. Microbial communities associated with the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, and endosphere of halophytes play an important role in plant health and productivity. Members of the plant microbiome belonging to domains Archaea, Bacteria, and kingdom Fungi are involved in the osmoregulation of halophytes. Halophilic microorganisms principally use compatible solutes, such as glycine, betaine, proline, trehalose, ectoine, and glutamic acid, to survive under salinity stress conditions. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) enhance plant growth and help to elucidate tolerance to salinity. Detailed studies of the metabolic pathways of plants have shown that plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria contribute to plant tolerance by affecting the signaling network of plants. Phytohormones (indole-3-acetic acid and cytokinin), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase biosynthesis, exopolysaccharides, halocins, and volatile organic compounds function as signaling molecules for plants to elicit salinity stress. This review focuses on the functions of plant microbiome and on understanding how the microorganisms affect halophyte health and growth.
4,500
초록보기
The properties of microalgae as bioresources for biodiesel production can be improved by adding nitrogen sources into the culture medium. Thus, Nannochloropsis oceanica CCAP 849/10 was cultured in f/2 media supplemented with five different forms of nitrogen at 0.88 mmol-N l-1 each: ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3), ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4), sodium nitrate (NaNO3), ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), and urea. The cell density, lipid content, and fatty acid profile of the microalga were determined after 15 days of cultivation. The growth of N. oceanica based on cell number was lowest in the medium with NH4NO3, and increased significantly in the medium with NH4HCO3. Cells treated with (NH4)2SO4, and NH4NO3 produced the highest total lipid contents (i.e., 65% and 62% by dry weight, respectively). The fatty acid profiles of the microalga were significantly different in the various nitrogen sources. The major fatty acids detected in cultures supplemented with NH4HCO3, (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, or urea were C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C20:5, and C22:6. However, the C16:1 content in the NaNO3-supplemented culture was very low. This study highlights that the nitrogen source can strongly influence lipid production in N. oceanica and its fatty acid composition.

모링가 지하부의 항혈전 활성

권정숙 ( Chong Suk Kwon ) , 성화정 ( Hwa-jung Sung ) , 손호용 ( Ho-yong Sohn )
4,500
초록보기
열매, 잎, 꽃, 봉우리, 꼬투리 등의 지상부를 약용 및 식용으로 사용하고 있는 모링가는 miracle tree라고 불리고 있다. 그러나, 현재까지 주로 잎과 씨에 대한 연구가 진행된 바, 지하부에 대한 성분 및 효능 연구는 초보적인 상태이다. 본 연구에서는 모링가 지하부의 유용 생리활성을 평가하기 위해 지하부의 ethanol 추출물 및 이의 순차적 유기 용매 분획물을 조제하고 이의 혈액응고 저해 및 혈소판 응집저해 활성을 평가하였다. 그 결과, 모링가 지하부 ethanol 추출물은 항응고 활성이 미약하고, 혈소판 응집 촉진효과를 나타내어 지혈작용을 나타내었으나, 추출물의 hexane 및 ethylacetate 분획에서는 우수한 트롬빈, 프로트롬빈, 혈액응고인자 저해와 함께 혈소판 응집저해 활성을 나타내었다. 또한 모링가 지하부 추출물 및 분획물들은 1.0 mg/ml 농도까지 인간 적혈구 용혈활성이 없음을 확인하여, 상기 분획물들이 신규의 항혈전제로 사용 가능함을 제시하였다.

Comparative Genomic Analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE5264, a Probiotic Strain Isolated from Traditional Maasai Fermented Milk

( Haeyoung Jeong ) , ( Sanghaeng Choi ) , ( Gun-seok Park ) , ( Yosep Ji ) , ( Soyoung Park ) , ( Wilhelm Heinrich Holzapfel ) , ( Julius Maina Mathara ) , ( Jihee Kang )
4,500
초록보기
Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE5264, isolated from a Maasai fermented milk product (“kule naoto”), was previously shown to exhibit bile acid resistance, cholesterol assimilation, and adhesion to HT29-MTX cells in vitro. In this study, we re-annotated and analyzed the previously reported complete genome sequence of strain BFE5264. The genome consists of a circular chromosome of 3,086,152 bp and a putative plasmid, which is the largest one identified among L. rhamnosus strains. Among the 2,883 predicted protein-coding genes, those with carbohydrate-related functions were the most abundant. Genome analysis of strain BFE5264 revealed two consecutive CRISPR regions and no known virulence factors or antimicrobial resistance genes. In addition, previously known highly variable regions in the genomes of L. rhamnosus strains were also evident in strain BFE5264. Pairwise comparison with the most studied probiotic strain L. rhamnosus GG revealed strain BFE5264-specific deletions, probably due to insertion sequence-mediated recombination. The latter was associated with loss of the spaCBA pilin gene cluster and exopolysaccharide biosynthetic genes. Comparative genomic analysis of the sequences from all available L. rhamnosus strains revealed that they were clustered into two groups, being within the same species boundary based on the average nucleotide identities. Strain BFE5264 had a sister group relationship with the group that contained strain GG, but neither ANI-based hierarchical clustering nor core-gene-based phylogenetic tree construction showed a clear distinctive pattern associated with the isolation source, implying that the genotype alone cannot account for their ecological niches. These results provide insights into the probiotic mechanisms of strain BFE5264 at the genomic level.
4,500
초록보기
Apigenin, a common natural product that is found in many plants and vegetables, has been reported to have many biological activities, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. The triple- negative breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 is known to be highly invasive and resistant to chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effect of apigenin on human MDA-MB-231 cells. First, the cytotoxicity of apigenin toward MDA-MB-231 cells was analyzed by MTT assay. Then, the cell cycle and apoptotic effects of apigenin were examined, and the molecular mechanism underlying its anticancer activity was explored. Apigenin inhibited the growth of the cells in a dose-dependent manner, correlating with the cell cycle arrest at the G2-M phase as well as an increase of early apoptosis. The cell-cycle inhibitory effect was highly associated with the increased expression of p21 and decreased expression of CDK6, cyclin D1, and cyclin B1. The induction of apoptosis by apigenin was associated with the upregulated expression of cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase-3, -7, and -9.

Effects of Psidium guajava Leaf Extract on Apoptosis Induction Through Mitochondrial Dysfunction in HepG2 Cells

( Van-tinh Nguyen ) , ( Seok-chun Ko ) , ( Gun-woo Oh ) , ( Seong-yeong Heo ) , ( Won-kyo Jung )
5,100
초록보기
The anticancer activity of guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf extract (GLE) occurs via the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the mechanism behind GLE-induced apoptosis in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the apoptotic effects and mechanism of action of GLE in cultured HepG2 cells. The results showed that GLE induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis and disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Moreover, GLE increased the expression of apoptotic pathway proteins, such as the cleaved forms of caspase-3, -8, and -9; the translocation of Bax and cytochrome c (cyt-c) from the mitochondria to the cytosol; and the downregulation of Bcl-2. In addition, p53 protein expression was increased upon GLE treatment. These observations indicate that the GLE-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells is mediated by mitochondrial ROS generation, followed by caspase activation and cyt-c release, suggesting that GLE may be a promising candidate for the development of novel drugs for the treatment of liver cancers.

Isolation and Characterization of Bioactive Compounds from Root of Rubus coreanus Miquel and their Antimicrobial Activity

( Ha Na Jang ) , ( Ji Hoon Ha ) , ( Yoon Ju Lee ) , ( Min Min Fu ) , ( Soo Nam Park )
4,500
초록보기
Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCM), also known as Korean blackberry or bokbunja, is used as a South Korean traditional medicine to treat acne and inflammatory skin conditions. The antimicrobial activity of RCM root and its active compounds remain unclear. In this study, we prepared a 50% ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and acid-treated ethyl acetate fraction (aglycone fraction) of RCM root, and evaluated antibacterial activities against the skin pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas acnes, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In a paper disc assay, all fractions of RCM root showed antimicrobial activities against the five skin pathogens. The ethyl acetate fraction displayed 6-, 12-, and 2-fold higher minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) than the 50% ethanol fraction against S. aureus, E. coli, and P. acnes, respectively. The aglycone fraction displayed 2-fold higher MIC than methyl paraben against P. acnes, S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa. The ethyl acetate fraction displayed a minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) similar to that of methyl paraben, and the aglycone fraction showed 2- to 4-fold higher MBCs than those of methyl paraben. In particular, the ethyl acetate fraction was not cytotoxic and showed thermal stability after incubation at high temperatures (60-121℃). Finally, the ethyl acetate fraction was separated and four components were identified: procyanidin C, propelagonidin dimer, ellagic acid, and methyl ellagic acid acetyl pentose. The compounds showed high antibacterial activities. These results suggest that RCM root is potentially applicable as a natural preservative in cosmetics.

추출조건에 따른 콩잎 추출물의 이소플라본 함량 및 이화학적 특성

윤정아 ( Jeong-ah Yoon ) , 권세영 ( Se-young Kwun ) , 박은희 ( Eun-hee Park ) , 김명동 ( Myoung-dong Kim )
4,500
초록보기
본 연구는 콩 생산 산업의 부산물로 생산되는 콩잎을 고부가 식품원료로 활용하기 위해 이소플라본의 추출 효율 및 이화학적 특성 변화를 조사하였다. 열수 추출 중 온도와 시간에 따른 이소플라본 함량, DPPH 라디칼 소거능, tannin 함량, 총 폴리페놀 함량을 조사하였다. 이소플라본 함량은 90℃에서 12시간 동안 추출하였을 때 59.74 ± 4.54 mg/l로 가장 높게 나타났으며, 12시간과 24시간 간의 유의적인 차이가 나타나지 않았다. 탄닌 함량은 낮은 온도에서 추출할 수록 높은 함량을 나타내었는데, 50℃, 12시간에서 0.31 ± 0.02%로 가장 높게 나타났다. DPPH 라디칼 소거능은 90℃에서 12시간 동안 추출하였을 때, 67.26 ± 3.67%로 가장 높게 나타났으며, 총 폴리페놀 함량도 1,688.68 ± 97.37 μg/ml CAE로 가장 우수하였다. 따라서, 이소플라본과 폴리페놀의 함량, 항산화 활성 등을 고려하여 콩잎의 열수 추출조건은 90℃에서 12시간 동안 추출하는 것이 가장 효율적인 것으로 판단되었다.

A MALDI-MS-based Glucan Hydrolase Assay Method for Whole-cell Biocatalysis

( Da-hee Ahn ) , ( Han-gyu Park ) , ( Won-suk Song ) , ( Seong-min Kim ) , ( Sung-hyun Jo ) , ( Yung-hun Yang ) , ( Yun-gon Kim )
4,500
초록보기
Screening microorganisms that can produce glucan hydrolases for industrial, environmental, and biomedical applications is important. Herein, we describe a novel approach to perform glucan hydrolase screening―based on analysis of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) spectra―which involves degradation of the oligo- and polysaccharides. As a proof-of-concept study, glucan hydrolases that could break down glucans made of several glucose units were used to demonstrate the MALDI-MS-based enzyme assay. First, the enzyme activities of α-amylase and cellulase on a mixture of glucan oligosaccharides were successfully discriminated, where changes of the MALDI-MS profiles directly reflected the glucan hydrolase activities. Next, we validated that this MALDI-MS-based enzyme assay could be applied to glucan polysaccharides (i.e., pullulan, lichenan, and schizophyllan). Finally, the bacterial glucan hydrolase activities were screened on 96-well plate-based platforms, using cell lysates or samples of secreted enzyme. Our results demonstrated that the MALDI-MS-based enzyme assay system would be useful for investigating bacterial glucoside hydrolases in a high-throughput manner.

N-아세틸글루코사민 생산을 위한 코리네박테리움 글루타미컴의 대사공학

김진연 ( Jin-yeon Kim ) , 김부연 ( Bu-yeon Kim ) , 문경호 ( Kyung-ho Moon ) , 이진호 ( Jin-ho Lee )
4,500
초록보기
대사공학을 이용하여 N-아세틸글루코사민(GlcNAc)을 생산하는 재조합 Corynebacterium glutamicum을 개발하였다. 먼저 GlcNAc를 생산하는 기반균주를 제작하기 위하여, N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate deacetylase와 glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase를 암호화하는 nagAB와 N-acetylmannosamine-6-phosphate epimerase를 암호화하는 nanE를 C. glutamicum ATCC 13032에서 순차적으로 결손하여, 최종적으로 KG208 균주를 제작하였다. 또한, glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase를 암호화하는 C. glutamicum 유래의 glmS와 glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase를 암호화하는 Saccharomyces cerevisiae 유래의 gna1을 각각 여러 발현벡터에 클로닝하였다. 여러 발현 조합의 플라스미드들 중에서 pCXI40-glmS와 pCEI40-gna1을 함유한 제조합균주 KG440은 삼각플라스크 발효에서 1.77 g/l의 GlcNAc와 0.63 g/l의 글루코사민을 생산하였다.
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