Chlorella vulgaris was isolated from the Nile River, Qalubia Governorate, Egypt, for possible use in biodiesel production. BG-II nutrient growth media was used for isolation and laboratory growth. Identification was performed via 18S rRNA gene amplification, followed by sequencing. The alga was exposed to UVC (254 nm) for 15, 30, and 45 s to improve dry weight accumulation and to increase the oil production. Daily measurements of dry weight (g·l-1) were performed; oil content and volumetric lipid productivity were also determined. UV-C exposure led to an increase in the volumetric lipid productivity by 27, 27.3, and 32.4 mg·l-1·d-1 with 15, 30, and 45 s, respectively, as compared with the control, which resulted in 18 mg·l-1·d-1. Of the examined mutants, the one with the highest productivity was re-irradiated by UV-C (254 nm) for 15, 30, 45, and 60 s. For 15 s of exposure time, the oil content increased to 34%, while it was 31% at 30 s; further, it decreased to 22% at 45 and 60 s exposures. The fatty acid methyl ester profile was 82.22% in the first mutant at 45 s, compared with the wild strain that contained a total of 66.01% of FAs. Furthermore, the highest levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl ester were observed in the mutant exposed for 45 s, and it reached 11.41%, which reduced the cetane number to 71.3.