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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치


Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters

  • - 주제 : 자연과학분야 > 생물
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 계간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : - / SCOPUS
  • - ISSN : 1598-642x
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 : 산업미생물학회지(~2001)→한국미생물·생명공학회지(2002~)
수록 범위 : 47권 4호 (2019)

Multispecies Interactions in Biofilms and Implications to Safety of Drinking Water Distribution System

( Rine Christopher Reuben ) , ( Pravas Chandra Roy ) , ( Shovon Lal Sarkar ) , ( Sang-do Ha ) , ( Iqbal Kabir Jahid )
In the aquatic environment, microorganisms are predominantly organized as biofilms. Biofilms are formed by the aggregation of microbial cells and are surrounded by a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secreted by the microbial cells. Biofilms are attached to various surfaces, such as the living tissues, indwelling medical devices, and piping of the industrial potable water system. Biofilms formed from a single species has been extensively studied. However, there is an increased research focus on multispecies biofilms in recent years. It is important to assess the microbial mechanisms underlying the regulation of multispecies biofilm formation to determine the drinking water microbial composition. These mechanisms contribute to the predominance of the best-adapted species in an aquatic environment. This review focuses on the interactions in the multispecies biofilms, such as coaggregation, co-metabolism, cross-species protection, jamming of quorum sensing, lateral gene transfer, synergism, and antagonism. Further, this review explores the dynamics and the factors favoring biofilm formation and pathogen transmission within the drinking water distribution systems. The understanding of the physiology and biodiversity of microbial species in the biofilm may aid in the development of novel biofilm control and drinking water disinfection processes.

Silk Protein as a Fetal Bovine Serum Substitute for Animal Cell Culture

( You-young Jo ) , ( Haeyong Kweon ) , ( Sang Deok Ji ) , ( Jong Gil Kim ) , ( Kee Young Kim )
Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) is an essential substance added to animal cell culture medium. However, its composition is unclear causing problems such as development of an immune response when cultured cells are transplanted into the human body. In this study, silk sericin, silk fibroin, and hemolymph obtained from silkworms were added to the cell culture medium in order to determine if it can replace FBS. After establishment of the cell culture, cell proliferation and expression levels of cell growth-related genes were compared with those of control cells (cells cultured in the medium with 10% FBS). Results showed that the test group treated with silk fibroin extracted from a Korean silkworm variety, Kumokjam could replace 10% FBS. In addition, expression levels of cell growth related genes such as Fibronectin and TGF-β1 increased significantly in cells cultured using silk fibroin, depending on the concentration used in cell adhesion and cell proliferation [24]. To date, no studies have been conducted to find a replacement for FBS. Thus, this study was carried out to develop a substitute for FBS by using silkworm-derived alternatives such as silkworm hemolymph, silk sericin, and silk fibroin, which are cheap and have various physiological effects, cell promoting effects, and can be mass produced.

Phylogenetics, Safety and In Vitro Functional Properties of Bacillus Species Isolated from Iru, a Nigerian Fermented Condiment

( Gbenga Adedeji Adewumi ) , ( Sunita Grover ) , ( Chukwuemeka Isanbor ) , ( Folarin Anthony Oguntoyinbo )
Bacillus species were isolated from iru, a traditional fermented condiment in Nigeria. Polyphasic approach was used to evaluate the phylogenetic relationship and strain sub-type of the isolated species. Additionally, the phylogenetic profiles of the species isolated from iru were compared with those of bacilli isolated from different continents. The phylogenetic diversity analysis was performed using the combination of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, ITS-PCR, ITS-PCR-RFLP, and M13 RAPD-PCR. The analysis revealed that Bacillus subtilis U170B and B. subtilis U146A isolated from iru were the closest relatives of strains belonging to the phylogeny of B. subtilis sensu stricto and were related to other bacilli isolated from different continents that had functional benefits. The two isolated species exhibited resistance to acidic pH (pH 2.0). The survival rates of B. subtilis U170B, B. subtilis U146A, and B. clausii UBBC-07 (commercial probiotic strain) cultured at pH 2.0 for 3 h were 33.45, 12.44, and 9.53%, respectively. The strains were highly tolerant to bile salts [0.3% (w/v)]. B. subtilis U170B exhibited the highest cell viability (43.45%) when cultured for 3 h in the presence of bile salts, followed by B. subtilis U146A (25%) and B. clausii UBBC-07 (18.94%). B. subtilis U170B and B. subtilis U146A did not exhibit haemolytic activity and were susceptible to different antibiotics. Additionally, these two strains exhibited weak antagonistic activity against B. cereus. The diverse wild strains of B. subtilis can be used as a safe multifunctional starter culture for the industrial production of condiments with health benefits.
본 연구에서는 제주연안에 서식하는 감태에서 폴리페놀을 추출하고 남은 가공부산물을 이용하여 가축의 생산성 및 면역력을 증진할 수 있는 소재를 개발하고자 하였다. 흰쥐를 이용하여 감태 가공부산물을 0.1% 첨가 급여한 그룹에서 체중 증가량과 맹장 내 Lactobacillus spp.의 유의한 증가가 확인되었다. 또한, 혈액 분석 결과 일반적 혈액분석항목에서는 변화가 없었으나, IgA와 IgG 항목에서 유의한 증가가 나타났다. 흰쥐의 전체적인 체중 증가와 더불어 비복근을 절개하여 근육 성장 관련 유전자 발현을 분석한 결과, MyoD, Myogenin, IGF-1의 유의한 증가가 확인되었다. 감태 가공부산물 0.1% 급여 효과가 면역력을 증진하고, 근육성장에 기여하여 체중증가에 직접적으로 영향을 준 것임을 시사한다. 최종적으로 감태 가공부산물을 폐기하지 않고 성분 분석 및 효능 평가를 통해 생산성 증가용 기능성 사료첨가제로의 가능성을 확인하였으며, 향후 양계, 양돈 등 다양한 축종을 대상으로 생산성 평가 및 생리기능 평가가 수반되어야 할 것이다.

와송이 고지방 식이로 유도된 비만 쥐의 간내 지질 및 항산화 대사에 미치는 영향

이형선 ( Hyeong-seon Lee ) , 김수환 ( Soo-hwan Kim )
본 연구는 고지방 식이로 유발된 비만 모델의 지질 및 항산화 관련 효소의 대사에 대하여 와송 열수 추출물의 섭취를 통한 효과를 확인하였다. 정상군을 제외하고 나머지 군은 8주 동안 고지방식이를 공급하여 비만 상태로 유도하였으며, 9주에서 14주까지 고지방식이에 와송 열수 추출물이 2.5%, 5% 첨가된 식이를 자유 급식하였다. 그 결과, 고지방 식이군 대비 와송 추출물 섭취군에서 간과 폐의 무게가 감소되었으며, H&E 염색상에서도 lipid droplet이 현저하게 감소되는 것을 관찰할 수 있었다. 또한, 간조직내의 총 콜레스테롤과 중성지방과 같은 지질 함량이 유의성 있게 줄어들었다. 와송 추출물의 항산화제로서의 능력을 확인한 결과 DPPH 라디컬 소거능의 활성을 증가하였고, ROS 형성량은 탁월하게 감소되었다. 산화스트레스를 감소시키는 SOD와 CAT와 같은 항산화 효소의 활성이 와송 추출물의 고농도 섭취군에서 정상군에 근접하게 회복되었다. 결론적으로 와송 추출물의 섭취는 간내 지질대사를 조절하고 항산화 효소를 활성화시켜 비만 치료를 위한 생리활성물질로 유용하게 활용 가능할 것으로 생각된다.

Isolation of Bacillus subtilis SJ4 from Saeu (Shrimp) Jeotgal, a Korean Fermented Seafood, and Its Fibrinolytic Activity

( Zhuang Yao ) , ( Yu Meng ) , ( Huong Giang Le ) , ( Jeong A Kim ) , ( Jeong Hwan Kim )
A Bacillus strain, SJ4, exhibiting strong fibrinolytic activity was isolated from saeu (shrimp, Acetes chinensis) jeotgal, a Korean traditional fermented food and was identified as B. subtilis. The B. subtilis SJ4 strain can grow at a NaCl concentration of up to 15% (w/v). The fibrinolytic activity of B. subtilis SJ4 (152.0 U/ml) cultured in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth for 48 h at 37℃ with aeration was higher than that of B. subtilis SJ4 cultured in TSB (124.5 U/ml) under same culture conditions. The major proteins in the LB culture supernatant of B. subtilis SJ4 were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, which revealed three major bands (23, 25, and 28 kDa). The band (23 kDa) with strong fibrinolytic activity, analyzed on fibrin zymogram, was observed at 60-96 h of cultivation. The aprESJ4 gene encoding the major fibrinolytic enzyme, AprESJ4, was cloned by PCR. The aprESJ4 gene sequence exhibited high similarities with the fibrinolytic gene sequences of other Bacillus species. The amino acid sequence of AprESJ4 exhibited 98.9 and 98.4% similarity with subtilisin NAT and AprE2 of B. subtilis, respectively. Hence, B. subtilis SJ4 can be a potential starter culture for jeotgal products.

누룩으로부터 자일리톨 생산능이 있는 내열성 효모 Millerozyma farinosa 균주의 분리

정은혜 ( Eun-hye Jung ) , 배영우 ( Young-woo Bae ) , 권세영 ( Se-young Kwun ) , 박은희 ( Eun-hee Park ) , 김명동 ( Myoung-dong Kim )
누룩으로부터 자일로즈를 탄소원으로 이용할 수 있는 내열성이 우수한 효모 균주를 분리하고 46℃에서 비성장속도가 우수한 MBY/L1597 균주를 선발하였으며, 해당 균주는 Millerozyma farinosa로 동정되었다. 대조구인 M. farinose KCTC27412(=CBS7064) 균주는 46℃에서 자일로스 환원효소의 활성이 나타나지 않았고 균체도 성장하지 않았다. 그러나 M. farinosa MBY/L1597 균주는 46℃에서 NADPH를 보조인자로 사용한 경우 4.98 ± 0.49 U/mg protein의 효소활성을 나타냈다. M. farinosa MBY/L1597 균주는 46℃에서 20 g/l의 자일로즈를 이용하여 9.87 ± 1.00 g/l의 자일리톨을 생산하여 약 50%의 수율을 나타내었고 한국미생물자원센터에 KCTC27797 균주로 기탁하였다.

Application of Solanum lycopersicum Glucose-6- phosphate Dehydrogenase to NADPH-generating System for Cytochrome P450 Reactions

( Chan Mi Park ) , ( Heon Jeong ) , ( Sang Hoon Ma ) , ( Hyun Min Kim ) , ( Young Hee Joung ) , ( Chul-ho Yun )
Cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) is involved in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds in most organisms. P450s have great potential as biocatalysts in the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries because they catalyze diverse oxidative reactions using a wide range of substrates. The high-cost nicotinamide cofactor, NADPH, is essential for P450 reactions. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) has been commonly used in NADPH-generating systems (NGSs) to provide NADPH for P450 reactions. Currently, only two G6PDHs from Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be obtained commercially. To supply high-cost G6PDH cost-effectively, we cloned the cytosolic G6PDH gene of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) with 6xHis tag, expressed it in Escherichia coli, and purified the recombinant G6PDH (His-G6PDH) using affinity chromatography. In addition, enzymatic properties of His-G6PDH were investigated, and the His-G6PDH-coupled NGS was optimized for P450 reactions. His-G6PDH supported CYP102A1-catalyzed hydroxylation of omeprazole and testosterone by NADPH generation. This result suggests that tomato His-G6PDH could be a cost-effective enzyme source for NGSs for P450-catalyzed reactions as well as other NADPH-requiring reactions.

Molecular Cloning and Expression of Candida antarctica lipase B in Corynebacterium genus

( Tamara Gonzalez ) , ( Hasna Nait M ) , ( Barek ) , ( Ahmed E ) , ( Gomaa ) , ( Hassan Hajjaj ) , ( Chen Zhen ) , ( Liu Dehua )
This study, for the first time, reports the functional expression of lipase B derived from the yeast Candida antarctica (CALB) in Corynebacterium strain using the Escherichia coli plasmid PK18. The CALB gene fragment encoding a 317-amino-acid protein was successfully obtained from the total RNA of C. antarctica. CALB was readily produced in the Corynebacterium strain without the use of induction methods described in previous studies. This demonstrated the extracellular production of CALB in the Corynebacterium strain. CALB produced in the Corynebacterium MB001 strain transformed with pEC-CALB recombinant plasmid exhibited maximum extracellular enzymatic activity and high substrate affinity. The optimal pH and temperature for the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl laurate by CALB were 9.0 and 40℃, respectively. The enzyme was stable at pH 10.7 in the glycine-KOH buffer and functioned as an alkaline lipase. The CALB activity was inhibited in the presence of high concentration of Mg2+, which indicated that CALB is not a metalloenzyme. These properties are key for the industrial application of the enzyme.

Potential Yeast from Indonesian Wild Forest Honey Showing Ability to Produce Lipase for Lipid Transesterification

( Prayolga Toban Palilu ) , ( Rina Sri Kasiamdari ) , ( Miftahul Ilmi )
Biodiesel is produced through the transesterification process in the presence of alcohol and a catalyst that catalyzes the conversion of triglycerides to esters and glycerol compounds. A more optimal product conversion can be achieved using enzymes, such as lipase. Lipase is reported to be produced in osmophilic yeasts due to the low water content in their natural habitats. Wild forest honey is one of the osmophilic natural habitats in Indonesia. However, lipase-producing yeast has not been reported in the Indonesian honey. In this study, we screened the lipase-producing yeasts isolated from wild forest honey collected from Central Sulawesi. The production profile and activity of lipase were determined at different pH values and temperatures. One promising yeast was isolated from the honey, which was identified as Zygosaccharomyces mellis SG 1.2 based on ITS sequence. The maximum lipase production (24.56 ± 1.30 U/mg biomass) was achieved by culturing the strain in a medium containing 2% olive oil as a carbon source at pH 7 and 30℃ for 40 h. The optimum pH and temperature for lipase activity were 6 and 55℃, respectively. The enzyme maintained 80% of its activity upon incubation at 25℃ for 4 h. However, the enzyme activity decreased by more than 50% upon incubation at 35 and 40℃ for 2 h. This is the first study to report the lipase producing capability of Z. mellis. Further studies are needed to optimize the enzyme production.
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