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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

한국운동역학회지검색

Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics


  • - 주제 : 예체능분야 > 체육학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 계간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1226-2226
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 26권 1호 (2016)
4,000
초록보기
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between dance experience and smoothness of hand trajectory during dance by using three jerk-based quantitative methods (integrated squared jerk, mean squared jerk, and dimensionless jerk). Methods: Eleven Korean traditional dancers whose experience of dancing ranged from 5 years to 20 years participated in this study. Dancers performed the Taeguksun motion in Korea traditional dance. Six infrared cameras were used to capture the movement of the hands of the dancers. The smoothness of hand movement was calculated using three jerk-based methods. Results: With regard to the smoothness of the right hand, dance experience was significantly correlated with dimensionless jerk (r=0.656, p=0.028), while dance experience was not significantly correlated with integrated squared jerk (r=0.581, p=0.552) and mean squared jerk. With regard to the smoothness of the left hand, there was no correlation between dance experience and any of the three jerk values. Conclusion: Our results showed that individuals with more dance experience performed the task more smoothly. This study suggests that dimensionless jerk should be used as a predictor for smoothness in dance movement. Thus, our results support the idea that smoothness is an aspect of movement quantity distinct from speed and distance.

ORIGINAL : Comparison of Biomechanical Characteristics for the Skill Level in Cycle Pedaling

( Geun Hyuk Lee ) , ( Jai Jeong Kim ) , ( Sung Sun Kang ) , ( Ah Reum Hong ) , ( Jae Moo So )
4,000
초록보기
Objective: This study aimed to compare biomechanical data between elite and beginner cyclists during cycle pedaling by performing a comparative analysis and to provide quantitative data for both pedaling performance enhancement and injury prevention. Methods: The subjects of this study included 5 elite cyclists (age: 18 ± 0 years, body mass: 64.8 ± 9.52 kg, height: 173.0 ± 4.80 cm) and 5 amateur cyclists (age: 20 ± 0 years, mass: 66.6 ± 2.36 kg, height: 175.6 ± 1.95 cm). The subjects pedaled on a stationary bicycle mounted on rollers of the same gear (front: 50 T and rear: 17 T = 2.94) and cadence of 90. The saddle height was adjusted to fit the body of each subject, and all the subjects wore shoes with cleats. In order to obtain kinematic data, 4 cameras (GR-HD1KR, JVC, Japan) were installed and set at 60 frames/sec. An electromyography (EMG) system (Telemyo 2400T, Noraxon, USA) was used to measure muscle activation. Eight sets of data from both the left and right lower extremities were obtained from 4 muscles (vastus medialis oblique [VMO], vastus lateralis oblique [VLO], and semitendinosus [Semitend], and lateral gastrocnemius [Gastro]) bilaterally by using a sampling frequency of 1,500 Hz. Five sets of events (0°, 90°, 180°, 270°, and 360°) and 4 phases (P1, P2, P3, and P4) were set up for the data analysis. Imaging data were analyzed for kinematic factors by using the Kwon3D XP computer software (Visol, Korea). MyoResearch XP Master Edition (Noraxon) was used for filtering and processing EMG signals. Results: The angular velocity at 360° from the feet was higher in the amateur cyclists, but accelerations at 90° and 180° were higher in the elite cyclists. The amateur cyclists had greater joint angles at 270° from the ankle and wider knee joint distance at 0°, 180°, and 360° than the elite cyclists. The EMG measurements showed significant differences between P2 and P4 from both the right VLO and Semitend. Conclusion: This study showed that lower body movements appeared to be different according to the level of cycle pedaling experience. This finding may be used to improve pedaling performance and prevent injuries among cyclists.

ORIGINAL : Comparison of Biomechanical Characteristics of Rowing Performance between Elite and Non-Elite Scull Rowers: A Pilot Study

( Jin Sun Kim ) , ( Hanyeop Cho ) , ( Bo Ram Han ) , ( So Ya Yoon ) , ( Seonhyung Park ) , ( Hyunseung Cho ) , ( Joohyeon Lee ) , ( Hae Dong Lee )
4,000
초록보기
Objective: This study aimed to examine the characteristics of joint kinematics and synchronicity of rowing motion between elite and non-elite rowers. Methods: Two elite and two non-elite rowers performed rowing strokes (3 trials, 20 strokes in each trial) at three different stroke rates (20, 30, 40 stroke/min) on two stationary rowing ergometers. The rowing motions of the rowers were captured using a 3-dimensional motion analysis system (8-infrared camera VICON system, Oxford, UK). The range of motion (RoM) of the knee, hip, and elbow joints on the sagittal plane, the lead time (TLead) and the drive time TDrive) for each joint, and the elapsed time for the knee joint to maintain a fully extended position (TKnee) during the stroke were analyzed and compared between elite and non-elite rowers. Synchronicity of the rowing motion within and between groups was examined using coefficients of variation (CV) of the TDrive for each joint. Results: Regardless of the stroke rate, the RoM of all joints were greater for the elite than for non-elite rowers, except for the RoMs of the knee joint at 30 stroke/min and the elbow joint at 40 stroke/min (p < .05). Although the TLead at all stroke rates were the same between the groups, the TDrive for each joint was shorter for the elite than for the nonelite rowers. During the drive phase, elite rowers kept the fully extended knee joint angle longer than the non-elite rowers (p < .05). The CV values of the TDrive within each group were smaller for the elite compared with non-elite rowers, except for the CV values of the hip at all stroke/min and elbow at 40 stroke/min. Conclusion: The elite, compared with non-elite, rowers seem to be able to perform more powerful and efficient rowing strokes with large RoM and a short TDrive with the same TLead.

ORIGINAL : Effect of Prolonged Running-induced Fatigue on Free-torque Components

( Ji Seon Ryu )
4,000
초록보기
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in FT (free-torque) components between non-fatigue and fatigue conditions induced by prolonged running. Methods: Fifteen healthy runners with no previous lower-extremity fractures (22.0 ± 2.1 years of age) participated in this study. Ground reaction force data were collected for the right-stance phase for 10 strides of 5 and 125-min running periods at 1,000 Hz using an instrumented force platform (instrumented dual-belt treadmills, Bertec, USA) while the subjects ran on it. The running speed was set according to the preferences of the subjects, which were determined before the experiment. FT variables were calculated from the components of the moment and force output from the force platform. A repeatedmeasures one-way ANOVA was used to test for significant differences between the two conditions. The alpha level for all the statistical tests was 0.05. Results: The absolute FT at the peak braking force was significantly greater after 5 mins of running than after 125 mins of running.which was regarded as a fatigued state. but there were no significant differences in the absolute peak FT or impulse between the conditions. Conclusion: The FT variables in the fatigue condition during prolonged running hardly affect the tibial stress syndrome.

ORIGINAL : Kinematic Comparisons of Kettlebell Two-Arm Swings by Skill Level

( Chang Yei Back ) , ( Ji Yong Joo ) , ( Young Kwan Kim )
4,700
초록보기
Objective: The purposes of this study were to compare the kinematics of a two-arm kettlebell swing between experts and beginners and to identify the correct postures and biomechanical key points in an attempt to prevent sports injuries induced by a kettlebell swing. Methods: Four experts (height, 169.7 ± 1.5 cm; weight, 70.5 ± 1.8 kg; age, 32.0 ± 1.0 years) licensed to teach kettlebell exercises and three beginners (height, 173.7 ± 4.1 cm; weight, 78.3 ± 3.8 kg; age, 30.0 ± 1.4 years) with no kettlebell exercise experience participated in this study. Each participant performed 15 repetitions of a two-arm kettlebell swing using a 16-kg weight. Joint angles, angular velocities, and peak angular velocity sequences were calculated and compared between the two groups. Results: Large ranges of motion (ROM) of the pelvic angle and hip joints were detected in the experts, while beginners showed greater ROM of the shoulder joint. Peak angular velocity magnitudes and sequences were significantly different between the two groups. Experts lifted the kettlebell upward using the hip joints, pelvis, and shoulder joints (proximal to distal order) sequentially and lowered it using the reverse order of peak angular velocities from the shoulder to hip joints. Conclusion: Mobility of the pelvic segment and hip joint are required, while stability of the other joints is needed to produce appropriate two-arm kettlebell swings. The activation and coordination of the gluteal and hamstring muscles are key points in kettlebell exercises.

ORIGINAL : Suggestion of New Terminology and Classification of the Hand Techniques by Angular Momentum in the Taekwondo Poomsae

( Si Hyun Yoo ) , ( Kuk Hyun Jung ) , ( Ji Seon Ryu )
5,400
초록보기
Objective: The purpose of this study is to suggest new terminology for the ninety-five hand techniques based on the significance of their angular momentum, determined by analyzing each technique``s influence or impact on the compartmentalized angular momentum of the trunk, upper arm, and forearm in the Taekwondo Poomsae. Method: An athlete who won the 2014 World Taekwondo Poomsae championship was selected and agreed to participate in the data collection phase of our investigation. The video data was collected using eight infrared cameras (Oqus 300, Qualysis, Sweden) and the Qualisys Track Manager software (Qualisys, Sweden). The angular momentum of each movement was then calculated using the Matlab R2009a software (The Mathworks, Inc., USA). Results: The classification of the ninety-five hand techniques in the Taekwondo Poomsae based on the significance of each segment``s momentum is as follows. Makgi (blocking) is classified into fourteen categories, jireugi (punching) is classified into three categories, chigi (hitting) was classified into six categories, palgupchigi (elbow hitting) was classified into four categories, and jjireugi (thrusting) was classified two categories. Conclusion: This study offers a new approach, based on a biomechanical method, to the classification of the hand techniques that reflect kinesthetic motions in the Taekwondo Poomsae.

ORIGINAL : Kinematic Comparisons of the Tsukahara Vault between a Top-level Athlete and Sublevel Collegiate Athletes

( Cheol Hee Park ) , ( Young Kwan Kim ) , ( Chang Yei Back )
4,700
초록보기
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate kinematic comparisons of Tsukahara vault in gymnastics between a top-level athlete and sublevel collegiate athletes in order to obtain information on key biomechanical points for successful Tsukahara vaults. Methods: An Olympic gold medalist (height, 160 cm; weight, 52 kg; age, 25 years) and five sublevel collegiate gymnasts (height, 168.2 ± 3.4 cm; weight, 59.6 ± 3.1 kg; age, 23.2 ± 1.6 years) participated in this study. They repeatedly performed Tsukahara vaults including one somersault. Fourteen motion-capturing cameras were used to collect the trajectories of 26 body markers during Tsukahara vaults. Event time, displacement and velocity of the center of mass, joint angles, the distance between the two hands on the horse, and averaged horizontal and vertical impact forces were calculated and compared. Results: The top-level athlete showed a larger range of motion (ROM) of the hip and knee joints compared to sublevel collegiate athletes during board contact. During horse contact, the top-level athlete had a narrow distance between the two hands with extended elbows and shoulders in order to produce a strong blocking force from the horse with a shorter contact time. At the moment of horse take-off, reactive hip extension of the top-level athlete enhanced propulsive take-off velocity and hip posture during post-flight phase. Conclusion: Even though a high velocity of the center of mass is important, the posture and interactive action during horse contact is crucial to post-flight performance and the advanced performance of Tsukahara vaults.
4,000
초록보기
Objective: This study aimed to compare differences in biomechanical factors according to distance changes in relation to approaches during a round of golf to obtain basic data on golf swings. Methods: The research subjects were 8 KPGA-affiliated professional golfers who performed approach shots that put a ball into a circle of 8 feet in diameter from distances of 30, 50, and 70 m. Data were collected by using six infrared cameras and a ground reaction force device, which were applied to calculate biomechanical factors by using Kwon3D XP. The calculated data were subjected to one-way ANOVA by using SPSS 20.0, with the significance level set at p value of 0.05. Results: Elapsed time, stance width, clubhead position variation, clubhead synthesis speed, and cocking angle significantly differed according to distance change during the approach swing. Clubhead speed was positively related with stance width and clubhead displacement. Ground reaction force significantly differed according to distance change during the approach swing. Factors before and after showed differences in other states, except in the impact state. Conclusion: In the present study, we drew several conclusions regarding biomechanical factors and ground reaction forces according to distance change in the approach swing of professional golfers. According to these conclusions, we suggest that distance control with swing range is more important than power control in maintaining the accuracy and consistency of golf swing and is the most important mechanism of golf swing.

ORIGINAL : The Effect of Frequency of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) on Maximum Multi-finger Force Production

( Sohit Karol ) , ( Kyung Koh ) , ( Hyun Joon Kwon ) , ( Yang Sun Park ) , ( Young Ha Kwon ) , ( Jae Kun Shim )
4,000
초록보기
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) treatment on maximum voluntary force (MVF) production. Methods: Ten healthy, young subjects (5 males and 5 females) participated in the study. MVF was recorded after a fifteen minute session of TENS stimulation under two conditions: low frequency (4 Hz) at maximum tolerable level and high frequency (110 Hz) at maximum tolerable level. TENS was provided simultaneously via self-adhesive electrodes placed on the finger pads of the index, middle, ring and little fingers. MVF was also recorded in a baseline condition with no TENS treatment. Data were collected in three different sessions on three consecutive days at the sametime of the day. Results: Results from the study show that on an average, MVF increasesby 25% for the index, middle and little fingers for TENS treatment with 4 Hz frequency as compared to the baseline condition. However, the 110 Hz condition did not result in a significantly different MVF than the baseline condition during individual finger pressing tasks. In addition, while producing MVF with all the four finger stogether, MVF was 30% higher for the 4 Hz conditionin comparison to the baseline condition, and 15% higher for the 110 Hz condition in comparison to the baseline condition respectively. Conclusion: The results suggest that stimulation ofafferent fibers onthe glabrous skinwith TENS could have a net facilitatory effect on the maximum motoroutput.

ORIGINAL : Effect of Leg Length Discrepancy on Gait and Cobb`s Angle

( Ki Han Park ) , ( Kew Wan Kim ) , ( Chol Hee Kim )
한국운동역학회|한국운동역학회지  26권 1호, 2016 pp. 101-113 ( 총 13 pages)
4,800
초록보기
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of leg length discrepancy (LLD) on the human body during gait and standing posture. Methods: The study group comprised of 17 adult participants with LLDs of <1 cm. LLDs were artificially induced to 0, 1, 2, and 3 cm. The proportion of weight distribution, shift of the mean center of pressure, and Cobb``s angle were measured in the standing position. Kinematic variables such as walking and striding width and time, and the proportion of stance phase for single- and double-limb gait were measured as well. The participants were required to either stand or walk on a treadmill (Zebris FDM) with a pressure plate, and the Cobb``s angle measurements were obtained from radiographs. Results: A discrepancy of 3 cm in leg length resulted in a statistically significant shift of the center of pressure in the standing position. Moreover, the Cobb angle increased as the discrepancy became larger. The step length and width of the longer (left) leg during gait statistically significantly increased when the discrepancy was 2 cm. In addition, step time was statistically significant when the discrepancy between the longer (right) and shorter (left) legs was more than 2 cm. The proportion of single-limb stance phase was statistically significant as the discrepancy became larger, especially when the discrepancy was >2 cm for the longer (right) leg and 1 cm for the shorter (right) leg. Conclusion: The study showed that LLD influenced deformations of the human body and walking.
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