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영어영문학21검색

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  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 계간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1738-4052
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 : 영어영문학(~2003)→영어영문학21(2004~)
논문제목
수록 범위 : 26권 2호 (2013)
6,200
초록보기
A good number of criticisms focus on similarities between Sethe of Morrison`s Beloved and Margaret Garner of the real story who had to kill her own daughter in order to protect her from the cruelty of slavery. Based on the mother-daughter relationship of female slaves, many of them analyze Beloved`s return and what the return of the repressed memory means to ex-slaves. However, this essay instead focuses on Paul D and what his life as a male slave represents. In particular, this essay tries to interpret the meanings of the rusted tobacco tin he secretly hides in the place of his heart. Paul D`s rusted tobacco tin reveals the repressed chapter of early American history in which America earned independence from Britain with France`s help, which America bought by exporting tobacco. Of course, tobacco was cultivated in plantation based on slavery. In this way, Paul D`s individual memories contained in the tobacco tin are inevitably connected to the black people`s collective memories as slaves. The fact that this rusted tin opens by the sexual intercourse between Paul D and Beloved insinuates the possibility that Paul D`s painful memories as a male slave also have much to do with Middle Passage, the character Beloved insists she returns from. Paul D later saves Sethe from the prison-like 124, the house of dead memories, and helps her join the black community. When we read Beloved from Paul D`s perspective, we can trace the process in which individual memories are united with collective ones and claim to revise official history written from the perspective of whites.

영어영문학21제26권 2호 : 랭스턴 휴즈 시에서 흑인의 이중 정체성과 디아스포라

김광순 ( Kwang Soon Kim )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  26권 2호, 2013 pp. 27-48 ( 총 22 pages)
6,200
초록보기
This essay explores how Langston Hughes, the major poet of the Harlem Renaissance, handles the issue of “double-consciousness” that W. E. B. Du Bois pointed out as the psychological condition of black people in America. In his poems, Hughes pays great attention to the fragmented reality of American black people who are considered neither an American nor an African. His poem “Afro-American Fragment” epitomizes the sense of homelessness and disunity that troubles African Americans. Hughes presents a black diasporan unity as the practical way to resolve the sense of self-alienation and homelessness that African Americans had to go through in racist America. In Hughes` poems, black diaspora is neither a purely mythical and utopian space created by his poetic imagination nor a nativistic movement which some African American groups embrace as the way to achieve a sense of belonging. Hughes describes black diaspora as the material space with historical time and geography. In his poems, Hughes diligently digs for the roots that connect black Americans to the Africans. As a result, Hughes brings all different kinds of black people?light skinned black, darker skinned black, African black, and American black?into the unified black diaspora that he imagines.

영어영문학21제26권 2호 : 일그러진 기억 속의 가족 사진첩?엔라이트의 『개더링』

김은영 ( Eun Young Kim )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  26권 2호, 2013 pp. 47-65 ( 총 19 pages)
5,900
초록보기
This paper tries to examine a narrative of a witness to traumatic events that reveals hidden truth surrounding the events through reconstruction of memories. In Anne Enright`s The Gathering, Veronica Hegarty is the only witness to Liam`s sexual molestation as a child. Through her narrative, she discloses that Irish Catholic community unconsciously and indirectly prevents her from voicing her outrage. In addition, this paper tries to argue that Liam`s sexual molestation was not a casual accident but an inevitable consequence in Ireland, whose history and society have neglected the rights of children. Finally this paper tries to show that Veronica, as a witness to the traumatic events, exhumes the truth and becomes its messenger through reconciliation with her family history.
6,500
초록보기
The purpose of this paper is to reilluminate the major characters of Light in August with the concept of Jacques Lacan`s four discourses. Language, on the one hand, primarily is intended to play as a key medium that attests to the identity of human and make relationships with others. On the other hand, however, it plays a role of oppressor against humane identity. As language shows such twofold characteristics, so we humans use language to establish relationships and our own identity but at the same time suffer from extreme conflicts and confusions caused by loss of identity attributable to the outright power of a huge ideologic language (discourse). William Faulkner presented, in Light in August (1932), endless chains of conflicts in relationships between a subject and others, caused by the duplexity, ambilaterality and ambiguity of a language and ontological issues of humans that suffer from these. In particular, in the novel, Faulkner showed clearly how a language binds and oppresses humans and how they are victimized by a cruel, oppressive, aery and contradictory language that affects the unconscious mind and makes them lose their identity. A language that causes humans a tragedy is a collapsed language that has oppressive bindingness. Thus the purpose of this paper is to examine the symptoms of the characters related to the mighty power of the ideological discourses with which the characters agonize within the boundary of home and society. And this study introduces Lacan`s four discourses and at the same time examines the psychological symptoms and causes of the character and the basic relationship between human subject and language in the work. Especially this study deals with the sadomasochistic hysteric discourse of Joe Christmas which are the victim`s discourses of the oppressive master`s and university`s discourse. As a whole, this work examines what message the work render to us in these days.

영어영문학21제26권 2호 : 『플로리젤과 퍼디타』-모건과 개릭의 『겨울 이야기』각색

서경희 ( Kyung Hee Suh )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  26권 2호, 2013 pp. 93-117 ( 총 25 pages)
6,500
초록보기
This paper tries to examine the similarities and the differences of the two Florizel and Perdita`s, the two rival alterations of Shakespeare`s The Winter`s Tale by Macnamara Morgann and David Garrick, within the socio-cultural contexts of “the Garrick`s age” (1741-1776), when the imminent divorce of ‘stage’ and ‘page’ did not yet happen, and making adaptations of old plays rather than writing new ones became more suitable to the rival Theatres Royal in London mainly due to “the Stage Licensing Act” of 1737. Morgann`s alteration was a ‘pastoral comedy’ reduced into two acts, celebrating the love and marriage of Florizel and Perdita. The most important obstacle to their marriage was the barrier of class. The conflict was resolved by unfolding the mystery of Perdita`s birth, and the heir to the throne was lawfully and safely confirmed. Garrick`s alteration was a ‘dramatic pastoral`` transformed into three acts and could be arguably regarded as an adaptation closer to Shakespeare`s original compared with Morgann`s. However, Garrick`s alteration was mainly focused on Leontes` repentance and his family reunion and reconciliation. While his patriarchal wishes were fulfilled, the complex female characters were either silenced or marginalized, and their sentimental domesticity was emphasized. The two alterations by Morgann and Garrick remind us of the ‘multi-vocal’ potential of Shakespeare`s original and also of the fundamentally fluid and dynamic nature of drama and theater.

영어영문학21제26권 2호 : 세상을 구하는 노래-모던 발라디어 피트 시거

양승갑 ( Sung Kap Yang )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  26권 2호, 2013 pp. 119-143 ( 총 25 pages)
6,500
초록보기
The purpose of this paper is to find the possibility of songs as an ecological text for the enhancement of ecocentric consciousness. Ballads, sung by bards and minstrels in ancient times and folk singers now, have provided folks with means of communications and open places in which everything including nature merges harmoniously into one without any hierarchies in community or positions on earth. Pete Seeger, praised as ‘the tuning fork of American folk song,` has faithfully followed the ways of ancient bards and minstrels. Aware of the power of song, he knows his songs can be an catalyst for people to feel keenly about environmental crisis and persuade them into acting against it. In many of his songs, he dreams of symbiotic relationships between every creature on earth and wants to keep earth clean for the future generations, “tomorrow`s children.” Pete Seeger`s worldwide hits such as “Where Have All the Flowers Gone” and “Turn, Turn, Turn” have been translated in more than twenty countries and sung by many famous singers and ordinary people all over the world. Considering the qualification for the ecological text which makes people perceive the imminent environmental crisis and result in their active actions, the far-reaching influences along with his life itself devoted into environmental movement proves Pete Seeger`s songs to be an excellent ecological text.

영어영문학21제26권 2호 : 울스턴크래프트와 버크-프랑스대혁명과 계몽 논쟁

유경훈 ( Kyoung Hoon Yoo )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  26권 2호, 2013 pp. 141-161 ( 총 21 pages)
6,100
초록보기
This paper explores the debates between Mary Wollstonecraft and Edmund Burke on the French Revolution and the Enlightenment. Shocked by Richard Price`s sermon that applauded the French Revolution, Burke, in Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), criticized the horrible effects of the Revolution. Wollstonecraft, in A Vindication of the Rights of Men (1790) took her cue against Burke in that she considered the Revolution as a timely opportunity to establish human rights, equality between men and women, liberty, and philanthropy on English soil. The disagreements of Wollstonecraft and Burke hinge on the different interpretations of the Enlightenment philosophy. Burke, the forerunner of conservatism, founds his aesthetics and politics on “common sense” and “natural feelings”: that is, on nature. This maneuver of Burke secures an unchangeable origin that is designed to rationalize the questionable hierarchy among people. Burke proposes “prescription” as an antidote against the Revolution whose base is the enlightenment philosophy. Wollstonecraft, on the contrary, foregrounds Burke`s ideologies of anti-feminism, power-politics, and violence. Wollstonecraft as a radical Enlightenment thinker constructs a progressive relation of reason and feeling, moral virtue, educational system, and a new relation between men and women based on friendship. In this way, Wollstonecraft cultivates the grounds for feminism and democracy, which are anathemas to Burke.
11,600
초록보기
In July`s People, Nadine Gordimer considers post-apartheid as a revolutionary ‘interregnum’ in the history of South Africa, and pays attention to a great diversity of ‘morbid symptoms’ in the post-apartheid era. The novel traces to the inner changes of Maureen and Bam, a liberal white couple who are shipwrecked in ‘homeland,’ which is one of black people`s reservations and their servant July`s hometown. In July`s People, Gordimer examines the possibility of whites` coexistence with blacks in the post-apartheid era when the black power establishes a new social, political order. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the moments of rupture of Maureen`s and Bam`s identities in the perspective of ‘de-identification,’ which is one of main notions of Jacques Ranciere. In Ranciere`s definition, an identity is something given by ‘police community,’ and ‘political subjectivation’ can be achieved by the process of dismantling the identity distributed by this ‘police community.’ From this perspective, this paper interprets Maureen`s choice in the end of the novel as a step of becoming a ‘political subjectivation’ which the new political order demands South African whites in the post-apartheid era. Maureen`s action can be interpreted as a kind of initiation in which she tries to throw herself into ‘July`s people’ in ‘the age of July.’

영어영문학21제26권 2호 : 존 스타인벡의 “국화”와 “뱀”에 나타난 성 이미저리

최한용 ( Han Yong Choe )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  26권 2호, 2013 pp. 201-218 ( 총 18 pages)
5,800
초록보기
This paper is a study of the sexual imagery in John Steinbeck`s “The Chrysanthemums” and “The Snake.” These two works are entirely different from the previous works of Steinbeck. Just as the titles of “The Chrysanthemums” and “The Snake” strongly imply, the two stories are rich in sexual imagery. Therefore, to those readers who are familiar only with his previous social novels, these two stories show a surprisingly new horizon in his literary world. Sexual imagery in “The Chrysanthemums” is not outspoken, but suggested. The chrysanthemum stalks resemble phalluses and Elisa`s inserting the “little crisp shoots” into the furrows of earth suggests coitus. Elisa`s voice grew husky and her breasts swelled passionately, and she crouched low like a fawning dog. Sexual imagery in “The Snake” develops from when the woman searches for a male snake, which was identified as male because Dr. Phillips found him copulating with a smaller one. Watching the snake approach the rat, her body was crouched and stiff like when she was excited. Before the male snake eats the rat, he touches the body all over with his chin, which seemed to measure the body and kiss it. The message the author wishes to deliver through “The Chrysanthemums” and “The Snake” may be to show a variety and exquisiteness of imagery. But the true message that the author infers through Elisa and the snake-like woman is that female characters no longer serve only as the object of sexual desire but equally as the subject of the desire.

영어영문학21제26권 2호 : 핵어문법의 준동사구문 분석

정재창 ( Jae Chang Jung )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  26권 2호, 2013 pp. 219-235 ( 총 17 pages)
5,700
초록보기
The purpose of this paper is to explain verbid constructions which represent the characteristics of mixed categories in HPSG. This paper will deal with gerund constructions and participial constructions. Mixed category constructions involve lexical items which seem to belong to more than one category and so pose a problem for the standard view of syntactic categories. Both gerunds and participles carry hybrid characteristics in the sense of part of speech. For example, the verbal participle in Drinking coffee, she read Harry Potter has some internal property of a VP but the external distribution of an adverbial phrase. Participle drinking combines with direct object and forms an adjunct. Gerunds can function as a noun in a sentence and function as a verb in another sentence. Participles can function as an adjective or a verb in a given sentence. And when participle constructions which form subordinate phrases modify the main clauses, they become adverbial phrases. In those cases, participles function as verbs while forming adverbial modifiers. An HPSG analysis of English verbid constructions based on a more fine-grained theory of syntactic category presented another possibility. HPSG decomposes the linguistic elements that form a sentence into some features, and composes them from multi-dimensions. Therefore it was suitable to capture the hybrid characteristics which worked in the sentence constructions. Robert Malouf (1997) showed an analysis of the gerund constructions. Bouma, Malouf, and Sag (1998) suggested a constraint of adjuncts which is essential to analyze participle constructions. And this paper also presented an analysis of participle constructions, not breaking HPSG mechanism.
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