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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치



  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 계간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1738-4052
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 : 영어영문학(~2003)→영어영문학21(2004~)
수록 범위 : 27권 4호 (2014)

사회비극으로서의 『모두 나의 아들들』

김성철 ( Sung Chul Kim )
The purpose of this paper is to investigate All My Sons as a social play. Miller wants to write social tragedies in which the average man in the street becomes the tragic protagonist. He argues that tragic heroes are defined by their willingness to sacrifice everything in order to maintain their personal dignity-regardless of their status in society. Miller never sees milieu as destiny, though he is interested in the idea of stage as an environment because he is always concerned with the way the outside world shapes the individual. In his social tragedies, some of his more specific concerns would be the importance of the past, the issues regarding responsibility and connection, the nature of families, the damage caused by capitalism and materialism, and the law. Importantly, Miller also tries to describe the heroes who take on both individual and social responsibility, trying to make the world a better place. His tragedies, on a general level, create a better society by exploring the demands of morality, and uncovering individual and social needs. He lays emphasis on the harmonious relationship between individual and society. In All My Sons, Joe Keller is a man among men, a small factory owner, finally forced to his legal and moral crimes during World War II which resulted in the death of twenty-one pilots. His desire to pass his business on to his sons is rooted in love. This desire to bond with his son frees him from moral responsibility and allows him to commit crimes. He has violated a sacred bond of responsibility between himself and the society. Keller shipped faulty parts to the Army Air Forces. His actions are so terrible that one of his sons kills himself, and the other firmly rejects his system of thought and values. Keller is also shown to have felt guilty forhis antisocial crime, having taken his own life. But in doing so, he recognizes the responsibility to others which he has until now ignored. Chris, despite his new-found socialism, is still a product of the more traditional generation, and is reluctant to throw away his old value from his father``s world. While he dislikes his father``s capitalism, he still loves his father, and he is confused as to what he should do. He refuses to face the truth about his father. His realization comes too late. Just after his father``s death, he recognizes the relatedness of mankind which is at the heart of the play. Miller insists that we have social responsibilities and justices beyond the immediate family.
The term “Orientalism” was originally used by Western artists and scholars of cultural studies to refer to the imitation or description of aspects of Middle Eastern and East Asian cultures in the West. Since the publication of Edward Said``s Orientalism in 1978, “Orientalism” has been used to refer to a general Western attitude towards Middle Eastern, Asian and North African societies. In Said’s analysis, the West regarded these societies as undeveloped and inferior, while Western society was seen as developed, rational, and superior. These aspects of Orientalism are represented in the diasporic society of late 20th century England. After the Second World War, many people from ex-colonies in Asia settled in England. Therefore, in England, there are aspects of Orientalism in both white and diasporic society. This article analyzes the aspects of Orientalism in English diasporic society through the diasporic writer Hanif Kureishi’s novel The Buddha of Suburbia, which deals with the diasporic society in London in the 1970s. Using this text, this article shows how Orientalism affects whites and immigrants and what the British needs for a multi-cultural society.

돈 드릴로의 『화이트 노이즈』에 제시된 포스트모던 경험의 속성

나희경 ( Hee Kyung Nah )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  27권 4호, 2014 pp. 51-78 ( 총 28 pages)
In White Noise, Don DeLillo carefully investigates the causal interrelationship between technology and the obsessive fear of death in postmodern society. The two social and psychological elements of postmodernity are closely interconnected with each other in their function. Technology becomes the process and result of intellectual human activities through which he performs cultural transformation of nature for his successful adaptation to it. The fear of death, a fundamental psychological condition of human beings, gets distorted and amplified by the influence of modern technology. This paper examines the socio-psychological features of postmodern experience suggested in White Noise by focusing on the difference of the natural and cultural qualities of experience of its main characters. In the life of Jack Gladney’s family, the main characters of the novel, symbolic or cultural experience overpowers physical or natural experience. Their life is in the condition of the surfeit of the one and the lack of the other. Some of the characters such as Jack and Orest show an extraordinary concern toward the value of purely physical function of their bodies. Yet most of them are unaware of the fact that their life is excessively dependent upon the power of technology and the function of symbolic experience. DeLillo maintains a satirical viewpoint to the overwhelming influence of modern technology on the life of those characters, which in turn causes the excess of symbolic experience and the uncontrollable fear of death for them. However, DeLillo does not suggest that we can disregard the value of symbolic experience which is rooted in the ontological condition of human species.

우연, 디스토피아 그리고 영제국의 운명 -세기말 소설의 불안감에 대한 진화론적 해석

문상화 ( Sang Wha Moon )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  27권 4호, 2014 pp. 79-96 ( 총 18 pages)
Novels published in the fin de siecle period show the gloomy and negative prediction on future, affected evolution. According to Darwinism, every living thing in nature is affected by changing atmosphere, and the results are the survival of the fittest, struggle of existence, and natural selection. The problem of Darwinian evolution is that evolution does not have any directional nature, which means degeneration is a way of evolution. Non-directional character of evolution was accepted by the people of Britain which had suffered from the decline of industry. Novels, the product of culture, having customers called reading public should respond the gloomy atmosphere of England and show two opposite directions: the first is the acceptance of the mood in the novel, and the second is the hopeful rejection of the defeated mood in the novel. Or, other novels show the mixed mood of the two opposite atmospheres. H. G. Wells shows the gloomy mood in Time Machine and World War, and Stevens shows the hopeful and positive mood in his novels including The Treasure Island. This article emphasizes the fact that the fin de siecle novels are products of the gloomy atmosphere of England suffering from declining of her power, whether the novels acknowledged the weakening of her power or not.

「유리의 도시」에 나타난 정체성의 문제

박윤기 ( Yun Ki Park )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  27권 4호, 2014 pp. 97-117 ( 총 21 pages)
The aim of this paper is to analyze “City of Glass,” a novella written by Paul Auster, in terms of the problems of identity and search for possibility. While traditional detective novels have a “conservative ideological form,” as Bennet and Royle suggest, no such form or structure is emphasized in Paul Auster’s “City of Glass.” The traditional detective novel’s predominant quest-motif about the offender’s identity shifts towards the question about the fake detective’s identity in this novella. Therefore, it is interwoven with the issues of identity; fragmented selves, split personalities, multiple, confused, and mistaken identities. The protagonist named Daniel Quinn loses his identity and cannot decide whether he is real or fictitious. It is noticeable that Auster’s life experience constitutes his personal identity which is quite often projected onto his protagonist. His identity crisis, caused by many struggles as a beginning writer, losing his wife and son due to divorce, or the hostile environment of New York is reflected in the novella. Daniel Quinn fails in his search for identity and, as a result, his search for identity is portrayed as confused, uncertain, and unfinished.

소설의 장르의 형성과 헨리 필딩의 소설론

배현 ( Hyun Pae )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  27권 4호, 2014 pp. 119-140 ( 총 22 pages)
Henry Fielding is quite an interesting writer in that he has a systematic theory of novels and he has actively as well as openly manifested his ideas. He advocates his literary theories and principles in his short “Preface” to Joseph Andrews, throughout the 18 essays featured in Tom Jones, and via the ever-present, self-conscious voices of author-narrator in most of his novels. Ian Watt, who defines the characteristics of the new literary genre that appeared in the first half of the 18th century as “formal realism,” emphasizes the ways by which novelists depict the realistic characters and their common lives by means of the detailed and concrete manner of writing. He evaluates Daniel Defoe as first practitioner and praises Samuel Richardson``s effort in taking step further; but diagnoses Fielding’s work as stepping aside. The aim of this paper is to scrutinize Fielding``s theory of novels, to define his status as one of the important figures in the early development of this genre, and to clarify his purpose and intentions as a novelist. He criticizes vehemently contemporary licentious romances and tries to land his literary works a place among the classics. He calls his novels “history,” and maintains true historians should imitate nature, and its general and universal truths. Furthermore, Fielding, by means of his “epic prose” style, depicts the social milieu of his time, and parodies both the impulse of the middle class, which tries to establish a new social order, and the incapability and irresponsibility of the upper ruling class. His ultimate goal in literature can be summarized as “the exposure of vanity and hypocrisy in society,and the recommendation of the antithetical virtues.charity, chastity, and the classical ideal of life.”
Nadine Gordimer published in 2010 a collection of literary essays spanning for more than half a century, one of which was her 1984 review of J. M. Coetzee’s The Life & Times of Michael K. Interestingly enough, she added a sentence to what she had written more than two decades ago: “Postscript: J. M. Coetzee took Australian citizenship in 2006.” It is hardly a news that Coetzee left South Africa and settled down in Australia, for anybody interested in Coetzee is surely aware of it. Yet Gordimer chooses to problematize it and seems to suggest the need to reappraise Coetzee’s novel in light that he is no longer a South African author. This paper not only explores in what ways The Life & Times of Michael K is related to the author’s relocation but attempts to see Coetzee’s novel in light of two antithetical forces: the centripetal force of Coetzee’s novel trying to “take up residence in a world where a living play of feelings and ideas is possible” and the centrifugal force of South African literature in which his novels are swallowed “into a political discourse.” This paper ultimately suggests that Coetzee’s novel derives its extraordinary singularity from a tension between two contradictory forces engaged in a deadly but creative fight against each other. Yet it remains to be seen, as David Attwell suggests, whether in his adopted country Coetzee will ever “produce as rich a harvest” as he has done in his native country. It is in this respect that Gordimer’s rather harsh and ironic words will need to be taken into serious account.

『성녀 조안』에 나타난 쇼와 버틀러의 도덕률 -반-성직주의의 도그마

장금희 ( Keum Hee Jang )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  27권 4호, 2014 pp. 171-192 ( 총 22 pages)
This essay explores Saint Joan in terms of anti-clericalism and anti-jingoism to reveal how institutional religious hypocritical society is irreligious compared to Joan``s individualism and protestantism as a savior and agent of life force. She finds herself to save conventional society and humanity through self-recognition as an agent of new religion. By Joan``s merciful morality of new religion, instead of institutional religious authority, humankind can be saved and reached further development for the betterment of humanity, which is the elements of unconventional religion what Shaw and Butler insist throughout their views. Shaw``s criticism of orthodox religion in the nineteenth century is generally similar to that of Samuel Butler. Both Shaw and Butler were opposed and attacked ethical dualism and hypocritical conventionality of Christianity. Instead, for the modern religion, they emphasized evolutionism with purposive creative force. They regarded men as instruments carrying on the purpose of life and aim of humanity byfulfilling their religious duties. Accordingly, Saint Joan is the play which carries out that purpose most effectively.
It is interesting that some connections can be found between literary images in Uncle Tom’s Cabin and visual images of emblem, illustration, and sculpture which are associated with angels, goddess, Jesus, and shackled male or female slaves. The visual images in which black slaves like Tom supplicate freedom or emancipation from the whites, were popularized in the early and mid-19th century, and the images strongly influenced the expansion of slave emancipation movement. Undergoing the abolitionist movement, intriguingly, the women began to realize that they were simply like white domestic slaves. Consequently, it turns out that the movement played an important bridging role in enabling the women to regain their voices in the subsequent women``s rights movement. For the purpose of this study, this paper is to deal with three ways. First, a history of the slavery emblem has been briefly reviewed, and then, an investigation has been made, using visual images like emblem and illustration in Uncle Tom’s Cabin, to know how Eva is represented as a religious and abolitionist symbol and how Tom is represented as a symbol of martyr and Jesus. Finally, a study of sculptures of Hiram Power’s and Howard Roberts’ has been made to reveal the relationship between women’s anti-slavery movement and women’s emancipation movement. Broadly speaking, this study is an intertextual and interdisciplinary research to investigate how literature and visual arts are interlinked and interconnected.

한국어 내핵관계절 습득에서의 유생성 효과

조수근 ( Soo Keun Cho )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  27권 4호, 2014 pp. 217-236 ( 총 20 pages)
The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the semantic feature (animacy) of the head nouns has influence on the acquisition of Korean head-internal relative clauses. To achieve these goals, a grammaticality judgement task has been conducted on 40 Korean speakers. Twenty test sentences were created according to four types of internally-headed relative clauses for a quantitative study. In this study, we found that Korean speakers judged the grammaticality of internally-headed relative clauses at a rate of around 50%, suggesting that they restrictively accept the existence of internally-headed relative clauses. We also found that object internally-headed relative clauses with an inanimate head were judged more correctly than those with an animate head which indicates that the animacy effect only work on the acquisition of object internally-headed relative clauses. The fact that the animacy of head nouns has a limited influence on the acquisition Korean internally-headed relative clauses suggests that there is some interrelation between head nouns’ animacy and the acquisition of internally-headed relative clauses in Korean.
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