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영어영문학21검색

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  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 계간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1738-4052
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 : 영어영문학(~2003)→영어영문학21(2004~)
논문제목
수록 범위 : 28권 2호 (2015)

핀터의 『핫 하우스』-연극공간의 정치성 읽기

감지나 ( Gi Na Kam )
6,200
초록보기
This paper analyses characters and a stage as power effects, representing the various ways to provoke dreadful or comedic scenes in The Hothouse. It is a unique political play that rouses our suspicions against the system of public powers. Set in a government-run mental institution, this play also suggests violence of a hierarchical society by showing Roote, a general manager, Gibbs and Miss Cutts, middle managers. Their brutality to Lamb, a junior staff, is practiced openly in a double room separated into each section by interviewing him to control an electronic shock. Although senior managers maintain public order and try to use the underclass in this institution, Roote and Gibbs are under control of Lobb, a representative of government, i.e., the staff are considered as rulers and victims of bureaucracy. Meanwhile, some comedic elements from incongruity or tautology which is a blistering giggle popped up from the reverse of public forces reproduce the other side of this dominant place. In light of Foucault’s theory, spaces are fundamentally associated with political rationality that is on the different arguments for what he considered ‘governmentality’ since the 19th century. In conclusion, this study is aim to examine politics of dramatic spaces filled with power-relations not just ruling each other but actualizing our ‘political intelligence’ in a community or the self.

『황폐한 집』에서의 과도기적 추리서사 -버킷의 재현을 중심으로-

계정민 ( Joeng Meen Gye )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  28권 2호, 2015 pp. 27-43 ( 총 17 pages)
5,700
초록보기
Examining the representation of Bucket, this paper aims to prove that Dickens’s Bleak House produces a different narrative of crime from that in Newgate novels and in detective fiction. Bucket, like the detective in detective novels, reassures the class hierarchy by containing the subversiveness of crime discourse in the Newgate fiction. Bucket’s representation is, however, different from that of aristocratic amateur detectives and of incompetent and shallow-minded police in detective fiction. Bucket is represented as a police who reveals competence in detection, class-neutrality, and family value. Through the representation of Bucket, Bleak House produces more progressive discourse of class than detective novels. Taking a broad view of the development of nineteenth-century British crime fiction, this paper argues that the detective narrative in Bleak House is a transitional type of crime narrative between Newgate novel and detective fiction.

『사기꾼』에 나타난 인간의 이성과 허구

고창석 ( Chang Suk Koh )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  28권 2호, 2015 pp. 45-66 ( 총 22 pages)
6,200
초록보기
This paper aims to explore the significance of human logos and fiction in The Confidence Man. It may be said that almost all of Melville’s works are based on truth-seeking. However, this is complicated by Melville’s skepticism about human logos’s ability to seek truth. Given his skepticism about the effectiveness of human reason, he explores confidence tricks, deception, gullibility, greed, etc. According to Melville, deception and confidence play a significant role in our lives. This is the reason why Melville depicts the reality of various types of con men. Through the panoramic view of the 19th century American society, Melville attempts to portray Americans’ morality and doesn’t shy away from exploring its more hypocritical aspects. By underscoring the trust inherent in fiction between the writer and the reader, Melville seems to hold up his imaginative freedom to intellectual analysis. In so doing, Melville suggests that when human society is full of interactions of confidence and distrust, humans are forced to live with both charity and hatred. In short, Melville views American society or universal world as both noble and foolish. In addition, Melville suggests that human love is a necessary for the kind of nurturing and trust required to recognize humanity. Melville’s thoughts on human trust reveal his trust of God, of human logos, and of his own authorship. Therefore, Melville urges us towards compassion and sympathy even if they must coexist with misanthrophy, human distrust, and infidelity.

웃음으로 사회 비판하기-『진지함의 중요성』

기현주 ( Hyun Joo Ki )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  28권 2호, 2015 pp. 67-87 ( 총 21 pages)
6,100
초록보기
This paper aims to examine social criticism ‘trivialized’ in The Importance of Being Earnest. At first, as the play was hailed as a great comedy, the aspects of social criticism which are expressed from time to time have mostly been disregarded. While the play is delivering humor, wit, and satire, it often touches on acute social issues including class, economy, politics, and dominant values. The farcical world represented in the play, however, prevents the audience from perceiving the problems as ‘serious.’ Furthermore, the social institutions and values are not developed into fully-fledged discussions. The sensitive and controversial problems of the society are only briefly mentioned in the nonsensical environment. Accordingly, ‘serious’ topics become trivialized with clamorous laughter. Especially Lady Bracknell, an aristocrat, often displays contempt and fear toward lower class people who can commit outrageous violence that might subvert the established system. Her attitude and behavior relating to class issues reflect the society which was undergoing drastic change. At that time, social unrests were often engendered by riots or rebellions of lower class people. Besides, blood lines, family, and marriage, which are the basis of the Victorian society to maintain its social order, are targeted by satire. These concerns valued at that time are ridiculed throughout the play. Reversed gender norms are also a source of laughter. Women characters have the initiative in their relationships with their partners. While they pursue their goal insistently, male characters are usually passive and are willing to accommodate themselves to their partners’ desires. Wilde expresses his revolutionary ideas by locating the social institutions and values of the farcical world in which their meanings are inverted and trivialized.

토니 모리슨의 『자비』 -서술하는 주체와 관계 안의 주체

김미현 ( Mie Hyeon Kim )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  28권 2호, 2015 pp. 89-113 ( 총 25 pages)
6,500
초록보기
Toni Morrison``s A Mercy is an attempt to reconfigure the prenational time of American history and to restore the interracial, interethnic, and intercultural context before its accommodation in the dominant discourses of national history. Morrison provides her vision of a communal relationship by presenting the main character``s act of writing as the interlocutory scene in which she gives a narrative account of her life to the other. The main character, Florens``s first-person narration can be understood as the dyadic scene of self and other as it is motivated by the desire to recognize and to be recognized by the free blacksmith, the one she is in love with. However, she is telling her story to her now estranged lover, by scratching it onto the walls of her master, Jacob Vaark``s mansion. It is very unlikely for the blacksmith to visit the mansion again, and besides, he cannot read. This motif of failed address also offers an explanation of Florens``s relationship with her mother, who, as a slave, chose to send Florens away not to make her a victim of the sexual abuse by her master, D``Ortega. However, Florens, at the age of eight, could not fathom her mother``s intention, and remembers the separation as her mother``s abandonment. The motif of failed address becomes the condition of subjecthood and relation as the wrong or incomplete message from the mother becomes a driving force for Florens``s effort to interpret her experience and her search for selfhood against the social force of racism. Florens also builds the sense of self in the process of telling her life story to the blacksmith. Florens``s narrative shows that the self is not fully bounded to or separate from the other, but in its vulnerability and singularity depends on the other. This point can be related to Adriana Cavarero``s concept of “the narrating self.” Cavarero argues that the subject is not a solipsistic or independent entity closed upon itself but emerges in relation to the other in the conditions of address. In her view, we are beings exposed to one another in our vulnerability and singularity, and if “I” do not have “you” to address, my story becomes impossible as my singularity or uniqueness can be recognized in the interlocutory situation or in the encounter with the other, who is also unique. Morrison shows that our vulnerability as subject becomes the condition for our responsibility for each other and that the reciprocity can be a relational mode of the communities formed counter to the dominant discourses of national history.

저술하는 주인공으로서 핍-신사 개념의 해체와 재구성

박금희 ( Geum Hee Park )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  28권 2호, 2015 pp. 115-138 ( 총 24 pages)
6,400
초록보기
This paper attempted to regard Pip Pirrip as an authoring hero and look at what his prominent characteristics are at first, and then, how these characteristics of his contributes to the securement of persuasiveness in Charles Dickens``s discussion about a new gentlemanship in Great Expectations in the Bakhtinian perspective. In this novel, Dickens portrayed his hero Pip as an innocent orphan, isolated both domestically and socio-hierarchically, as well as a sensitive adolescent boy. Also, Dickens narrated Pip``s self-authoring, where Pip was establishing his self-identity while responding so sensitively to his personal, social environment. Here Pip was pondering deeply almost all social, individual values disturbing a true gentleman, and his such profound meditation ended up exposing many social absurdities. Becoming a true gentlemen of Pip``s can also be an ideological becoming in that it makes him establish his belief system newly as a true gentleman. Actually, Dickens``s creativity was highlighted in this effort to make Pip``s new autobiography highly persuasive regardless of maximizing his hero``s interactive context. This narratology made Pip``s becoming a true gentleman more persuasive as well. By using the hero-characteristics of Bildungsroman as variables and restructuring as many gentlemanship-related factors as possible as his hero``s lived experiences, Dickens made all his discussions in Great Expectations so persuasive.

『비네가 톰』의 노래 전략과 여성역사 다시쓰기

박보영 ( Bo Young Park ) , 김강 ( Kang Kim )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  28권 2호, 2015 pp. 139-163 ( 총 25 pages)
6,500
초록보기
Caryl Churchill is considered a leading British female playwright who has radically and consistently tried to dramatize social issues in the context of history, class, and politics through new and experimental theatrical styles beyond the traditional theatrical forms. As her first socialist feminist play, Vinegar Tom was completed by cooperating with the Monstrous Regiment, a socialist and feminist theatre group, which was mainly interested in the political orientation and theatrical techniques of Bertolt Brecht. The play consists of 21 scenes with 7 songs. The scenes show the past events in which socially and economically deserted women who were condemned as witches under patriarchal social norms. The songs by the female performers in modern dresses interrupt a natural flow of the consequent scenes so as to allegorically criticize the history of women distorted by a male-dominated perspective. The female performers play the roles as both singers and characters. Such crossing roles of singers out of the characters produce the alienation effect by which the audiences are induced on purpose to compare and contrast the past and the present in respect to the oppression of women. The songs containing the feminist themes connect concretely social prejudice and abuse of the witches in the 17th century with the issues of socialist feminism the present women still experience as oppression. The feminist themes that the songs contain are of the female body socially regarded as a tool of reproduction, nonsensical social perspectives on the roles of female gender, and slave-like domestic situation of some married women. The themes of the songs are also expanded into other realms of historical oppression beyond feminist concerns in regard to lunatics, blacks, and Jews. In Vinegar Tom Caryl Churchill progressively tries to rewrite existing history from a feminist perspective by means of the Brechtian techniques of songs accompanying an alienation effect. It is intended for the audiences to reflect on their own past and present conditions in history. As the song lyrics suggest, our awakening alliance will bring about the new vision of social change full of progress and hope by looking into the relationship between individuals and society, and making correction of any historical errors.

에이드리언 리치의 위치의 정치학

박오복 ( O Bog Park )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  28권 2호, 2015 pp. 165-194 ( 총 30 pages)
7,000
초록보기
Beginning with Modernist formalism and through Feminist consciousness, Adrienne Rich’s poetry has undergone a continuous change and revision. Especially since 1980s her feminist consciousness has expanded to embrace race, class and sexual orientation as well as gender. The crucial issue for her in this process is how to synthesize dialectically the differences and particularities among women instead of separatism and biological essentialism based on single categorization of woman. In this strategic move, the crucial concept is that of positionality. This attempt of Rich’s to converge otherness to politics of location is developed largely in two directions: one is a continuous quest for her own identity; the other is to create the communal discourse. Location for her includes not only physical site of time and space but also the community of discourse. Thus this paper aims to examine this search of Rich’s in her Your Native Land, Your Life and An Atlas of the Difficult World with emphasis on the representative poems of both books. In “In the Wake of Home,” Rich shows an ambivalent attitude toward home. Home is suggested not only as a safe haven, place of plenitude but as place of absence and loss. All through the poem, the contradictory views on home are juxtaposed. In addition, she also suggests political history of violence through reminding us of history of the homeless, refugees and diasporas. She tries to combine the personal mini-narrative with the meta-narrative of the homeless others. Thus, home also becomes the site to voice for others deprived of home by historical and political violence. In this way, home as a site of contradiction becomes crucial in her politics of location. An Atlas of the Difficult World develops the concept of positionality as the site where a subject accepts the contradictory identities and also as an agent to bestow a political act and responsibility to the subject. Throughout the book Rich makes us question our own locations and the possibility of solidarity with others. As the location and identity of a poet are always changing in response to the mutual act between time and space, so are readers. She requires the readers to join her poems, creating the meanings and taking a responsibility for them. In this way, readers create a new world of her poems. This is Rich’s strategy to locate the readers as an agent of the narrative that her poems open. Different readers in different locations can meet in the space of her poems where they can make new meanings which in turn lead to the revision of history. This is what Adrienne Rich imagines as a community.

레이먼드 카버의 단편소설에 나타난 닫힌 의식세계와 열린 의식세계의 대비

손동철 ( Dong Chul Son )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  28권 2호, 2015 pp. 195-214 ( 총 20 pages)
6,000
초록보기
This paper aims at examining Carver``s short stories in terms of two contrasting attitudes to life, represented by closed consciousness and open consciousness. Characters with closed consciousness in Carver``s earlier stories reveal a gloomy outlook on life; characters with open consciousness in his later stories show a positive attitude to life. The study also discusses the short story of “Feathers,” focusing on contrasting character traits of two married couples. Closed consciousness is bespoken by Carver``s main characters who feel lost and frustrated, as in the short stories “Pastoral,” “Will You Please Be Quiet, Please?” and “What We Talk about When We Talk about Love.” However, an example of open consciousness is best shown in the contrast between “Bath” and its revised lengthy version, “A Small Good Thing”; the shorter version vocalizes the mental state of a panic-stricken mother contemplating her son``s impending death, whereas the revised one stresses the positive attitude of a mother who gets ready to start life without her son, overcoming her grief. An analysis of “Feathers” focuses on the contrasting lifestyles and thinking of two couples: Jack and Fan, and Bud and Olla. Jack and Fran with their closed consciousness are most interested in enjoying their present comfort, neither wanting any nuisance in their marriage nor attempting to achieve anything. Nevertheless, this couple decides to have a baby when they get seduced by the happy life of Bud and Olla despite their indescribably ugly son and his intimidating playmate peacock. Ultimately Fran and Jack, who have never been aware of parental roles and responsibility, get perplexed and lose their way in child-raising. By contrast, Olla and Bud with their open consciousness are characterized by their future-oriented goal setting. The life stories of Olla``s childhood as well as her first and second marriages are recapitulated by her peacock (an emblem of her pursuit of happiness) and by her old plaster-of-Paris cast of crooked and jagged teeth (a reminder of what she was then and what she is thankful for now). Unlike Fran and Jack, Olla and Bud take lessons from the past and project their present conditions into the future. In “Feathers” Carver uses the unhappy couple with no perspective on life as a foil for the happy couple who plans their life and sets goals for a better life.

인종서사와 기억 -토니 모리슨의 『빌러비드』-

이경순 ( Kyung Soon Lee )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  28권 2호, 2015 pp. 215-233 ( 총 19 pages)
5,900
초록보기
Toni Morrison``s Beloved (1987) as an ethnic narrative explores the memory of the African-Americans. This paper aims to analyze the work of memory of the ethnic self and the subversive revision of the dominant history in the novel, primarily concerned with the role of memory in the construction of ethnic identity, and the relationship between memory and writing. In response to the erasure of the African-American``s slave experience, Morrison attempts to juxtapose her ethnicity with the official history, focussing on ethnic memory``s ability to destabilize history. Furthermore, ethnic and gender issues expose the many layers of African-American experience, particularly from the point of the mother-daughter relationships and from the psychological aspect of the slave mother. Thus Morrison emphasizes that memorizing the painful past is liberating the individual and the collective of the ethnic minority.
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