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영어영문학21검색

English21


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 계간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1738-4052
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 : 영어영문학(~2003)→영어영문학21(2004~)
논문제목
수록 범위 : 30권 1호 (2017)

루이스 어드릭의 『라운드 하우스』에서 `위인디구 정의`의 재해석

강용기 ( Yong-ki Kang )
5,900
초록보기
The twisted `wiindigoo justice` is a key thematic phrase in Louise Erdrich`s The Round House. The double narrative of this novel contests the wiindigoo justice that originally goes along with essential Indianness. Narrative ambiguity is strengthened by juxtaposing Linden who represents colonial power and Cappy who relentlessly destroys it, and positioning Bazil, Travis, Linda and Clemence in-between. And the narrative is more complicated as Joe, an unreliable narrator and protagonist turns out to be placed between Cappy and those go-between characters. The plot also twists wiindigoo justice. After Linden is shot and killed, Joe suffers from a psychopathic aftermath whereas Cappy does not show any psychological fear or instability, which differentiates their stances on the wiindigoo justice. The author downplays the wiindigoo justice once more by extrapolating the Akii story, an indigenous Ojibwe folklore. After all, Erdrich`s narrative ambivalence leads to a literary strategy that possibly facilitates the tribal `survivance.` In terms of the controversial debate on authentic Indianness, which has been held by nationalist critics and cosmopolitans over the last two decades, the author, taking a middle ground, promotes decolonization and cultural transformation as well. In other words, Erdrich takes the native sovereignty seriously, while also allowing cultural expansion on the other when it comes to cultural discourse or literary criticism.

차별적 인종화와 디아스포라의 역사적 외상 ―조이 코가와의 『오바상』

김미령 ( Miryung Kim )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  30권 1호, 2017 pp. 25-46 ( 총 22 pages)
6,200
초록보기
This paper explores differential racialization, diaspora, and historical trauma in Canada in Joy Kogawa`s Obasan. Canadian multiculturalism has been an integral part of the national identity, and the Canadian government has suggested that this multiculturalism is the heritage of tolerance in Canadian history. However, Joy Kogawa, as an ethnic minority writer, rebuts the contention by rewriting the Japanese-Canadian community`s history, which had been silenced and erased in official Canadian history. Obasan presents how white-oriented society has enforced differential racialization and institutional racism. Since Japanese people first immigrated, white Canadians considered them as a `lower order of people.` However, they were also afraid of `Yellow Peril.` Their ambivalent emotion towards Japanese-Canadians took the form of evacuation. Obasan focuses on the evacuation, internment, and diaspora of Japanese-Canadians during World War II. To heal the historical and community trauma, Kogawa presents Naomi, whose hybridity allows her to understand both Canadian and Japanese culture. Obasan insists ethnic minorities have to remember and face history to overcome and heal the disasters in the past.

『안토니와 클레오파트라』에 나타난 전복성

김희주 ( Hee Ju Kim ) , 정해룡 ( Hae Ryong Jung )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  30권 1호, 2017 pp. 47-62 ( 총 16 pages)
5,600
초록보기
This paper aims to examine how Cleopatra, who is the heroine of Shakespeare`s Antony and Cleopatra, overcomes otherness by extricating herself from the dominant racial and sexual discourses of Rome. She is branded a witch and a whore in the play, and is also accused of lustfulness, due to the prevailing stereotype that Egyptians and gypsies were the same race. However, this play gives Cleopatra a variety of subversive strategies, and she is characterized in a non-stereotypical manners. Cleopatra shows her boldness as a female monarch in her relationship with Antony, and she establishes her presence by assuming the figure of the goddess of Isis. Through this strategy, she captivates the generals of Rome, and subverts power relationships. Her cross-dressing creates a crack in Rome`s dominant male ideology. Cleopatra, one of Shakespeare`s most powerful female characters, represents her identity as a woman of strong sexuality and independent voice and boldness, and, accordingly, consolidates her position as a female monarch. Furthermore, by using a variety of subversive strategies, this play debunks the patriarchy of Rome and dominant discourse of colonization.

헨리 제임스의 『대사들』에 묘사된 지각적 경험의 특성

나희경 ( Heekyung Nah )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  30권 1호, 2017 pp. 63-85 ( 총 23 pages)
6,300
초록보기
Literary criticism for Henry James`s The Ambassadors tends to focus on its descriptive technique and narrative manner. Critics have analyzed how thoroughly James, in composing the novel, concentrated his attention on delineating the vision, perception, impression, and recognition of Lambert Strether, the protagonist of the novel. In short, they have tried to prove the fact that James showd an exquisite craftsmanship in practicing the technique of `showing.` Engaging in such critical discussion on the writing style and structure of The Ambassadors, this paper aims to illuminate the nature and process of Lambert Strether`s perceptual experience of the cultural environment of Paris. Strether`s perceptual experience can be characterized by such psychological concepts as attention, the fusion and flow of consciousness, impressionistic pictorialism, attraction and confusion, and an ironical conversion of recognition.

『비밀의 강』―다시 쓰는 호주 개척 신화

문영희 ( Young Hee Mun )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  30권 1호, 2017 pp. 87-108 ( 총 22 pages)
6,200
초록보기
The Secret River is not written by an Aboriginal author but an a descendant of white settlers. Some critics criticize The Secret River as having racist stereotyping under the guise of postcolonial text. But postcolonial theory is not always well-suited to the Australian context. The novel follows the life of William Thornhill, a decent but poor man who eventually comes to New South Wales in 1806 for petty theft. The novel is the outcome of Grenville`s research on the history of her ancestor Soloman Wiseman. She has drawn him as being morally ambivalent about the way he sees and treats the Aborigines. Grenville`s portrait of Thornhill is not a hero to lead readers` moral path in the story. Instead, he takes part in a massacre of Aborigines to disperse them and to take up the land around the Hawkesbury River. Although he gains hundreds of acres of land, he remains `emptied` and never feels triumphant. In the last scene of the novel, he sits on the bench feeling punished and staring into the dark. Grenville encourages readers to reflect up on the question of what it means to be a white Australian and to call upon White-settlers to atone for the their treatment of the Aborigines.

텍스트마이닝과 영미소설의 서사성 연구―표본 소설 분석

박정식 ( Jungsik Park ) , 박미선 ( Mi Sun Park )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  30권 1호, 2017 pp. 109-134 ( 총 26 pages)
6,600
초록보기
Using text-mining technology, this article traces diachronic changes of narrativity in the genre of the British and American novel from the 18th-century to the mid-twentieth-century. Recently introduced to the various fields of the humanities, text-mining is a viable way in which quantitative analyses can be used in literary studies. To open wide the possibility of quantitative anlayses of the genre of novel, this article shows how text-mining is used and innovates the study of novels through sample analyses of Henry Fielding, Daniel Defoe, James Joyce, and Ernest Hemingway. The results show the distinctive differences in narratorial control (first person pronoun), syntactic simplicity, and other grammatical and stylistic features. For instance, in the samples, Hemingway enhanced narrativity by increasing word concreteness and James Joyce by syntactic simplicity, whereas Defoe enhanced it by increasing referential cohesion and Fielding by deep cohesion.
6,600
초록보기
Thomas King is one of the best-known contemporary Native writers in Canada helping provide Canadian literature with a wide range of cultural backgrounds. His second novel, Green Grass, Running Water deals with several stories about the First Nations people in a Blackfoot community in Alberta, Canada. Among the stories, the life of Lionel is especially worthy of notice with three mistakes that he had made from his childhood to middle-age. The mistakes show that he has imitated white people by disguising his Indian identity with clothes he wears, an effect of colonialist ideology which promotes white supremacy over colored people. His mistakes of the past have a lasting influence on his presence and are related to white people, which justifies the presence and role of trickster characters in the novel. With the help of the trickster, who serves as a saviour or healer in Native American mythology and literature, Lionel successfully finds his right place and purpose in his life by restoring his identity as a Blackfoot Indian. His life suggests the question of the unhealed past and its lasting influence on the present reflecting the fate of the whole aboriginal people. This analysis takes a closer look at how Lionel`s masking and unmasking is portrayed as a process of healing and restoration for the whole indigenous community.

살만 루시디의 『하룬과 이야기 바다』에 나타난 서사의 정치학

이성진 ( Seongjin Lee )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  30권 1호, 2017 pp. 161-179 ( 총 19 pages)
5,900
초록보기
Salman Rushdie`s Haroun and the Sea of Stories, published in 1990, is Rushdie`s first novel after the fatwa was declared against him. Therefore, this novel works as a connector between The Satanic Verses in 1988 and The Moor`s Last Sigh in 1995. Haroun and the Sea of Stories is an allegory in which Rushdie is sharing literary and political concerns. This novel, written for his son, Zafar, depicts an adventure of Haroun against Khattam-Shud, who is Arch-Enemy of all Stories and even of Language. The novel exposes the dictator`s censorship and oppression of free speech. Thus, in this essay, I will investigate Haroun and the Sea of Stories as an allegory of censorship and free speech. I will conclude that Salman Rushdie has avoided the binary structures and expressed hope in polyphonic hybridity as a politic narrative.

아프리카계 미국사회의 반공동체 의식에 대한 토니 모리슨의 비판적 시각

이영철 ( Young Cheol Lee )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  30권 1호, 2017 pp. 181-206 ( 총 26 pages)
6,600
초록보기
This study discusses Toni Morrison`s critical perspectives on African Americans` anti-communalism in Song of Solomon, Sula, and Paradise. Morrison shows that materialism and paternalism, egotistic individualism, sexual exclusivism, and racial-sexual chauvinism in the black community serve as abusive obstacles to the founding and maintenance of community based on love, obstacles to the fraternal love of community, and obstacles to the love for fellow human beings. In Song of Solomon, Morrison`s perspective puts her critical focus on the patriarchal violence of Macon Dead who oppresses his family members and on his capitalistic materialism that extorts rent from his poor tenants. In Sula, Morrison`s critical focus is not only on Sula`s self-centered individualism that destroys family hierarchy and community rules but also on the community that denies Sula`s essence and dishonors her. Morrison shows that both Sula and the community go astray from African American communalism, and that each destroys the other. In Paradise, her critical focus is on the community that defines itself by disdain for racial-sexual others and by acts of violence against them. She argues that the community has copied the whites` capitalistic values, paternalism, sexual exclusivism, and racial chauvinism. She shows that the copied society doesn`t share other genders`, classes`, races` identities and consciousness with its racial community. Finally, through her critical perspectives, Morrison stresses that African Americans should form and maintain communities where people understand each other and accept racial, cultural, sexual differences. More specifically, her ideal communalism means that all people, no matter what their racial, sexual, and/or cultural backgrounds may be, have their unique identities, and should be accepted in the equilibrium of multiple subjectivities.

아이티 공동체와 트라우마 회복하기―에드위제 댄티카의 『듀 브레이커』

이현주 ( Hyunju Lee )
21세기영어영문학회|영어영문학21  30권 1호, 2017 pp. 207-230 ( 총 24 pages)
6,400
초록보기
Trauma theory reconstructs the relationship between the reader and the text as a “witness” to trauma, so that reading itself demands political, ethical, and aesthetic practices. The reader who analyzes a literary text as a testimony can become an interpreter and therapist. Furthermore, the recovered text which has revealed and healed its trauma eventually builds the bridges of understanding between sympathetic interpreters and traumatic experiences. Therefore, this paper aims to analyze how the literary text provides access to history related to individual experiences, traumas, and memories in Edwidge Danticat`s The Dew Breaker, which consists of nine short stories. Her narrative text as a short story cycle imbricates―the diasporic lives of Haitain Americans as victimizers/victims and―the hanging lives of local Haitians as survivors/preys under the influence of Duvalier`s dictatorship that used torture, murder, rape, imprisonment and so on. The three main stories based on the Biennaimes―“The Book of the Dead”, “The Book of Miracles”, and “The Dew Breaker”―respectively offer a beginning, a middle, and an end to Dnaticat`s fiction. Such a textual structure takes a centripetal force to draw in the other six short stories―“Seven”, “Water Child”, “Night Talkers”, “The Bridal Seamstress”, “Monkey Tails”, and “Funeral Singers”. Mr. Biennaime, a hunter and victimizer as Tontons Macoute/the dew breaker/fat man under the brutal reign of dictator Papa Doc in Haiti, plays an important role as social glue, for he connects other characters as a member of a whole community without distinction of race, gender, and class. The Biennaimes` own memories and traumas have effects on their daughter, Ka, and other characters. Danticat creates various characters including Ka, Danny, Aline, Michel, and Nadine as agents of reinscribing and reconstructing their parents`s memories and traumas, for they become not only listeners to victimizers` confessions but also tolerators of victims` silence and inarticulation.
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