The Tale of Hungbu and Nolbu, one of the most well-known stories in Korea, shares many similarities with the Malaysian folktale Waja dan Wira, and its Indonesian counterpart Semangka Emas, from West Kalimantan. While written versions of the folktale of Hungbu and Nolbu have yet to be found, the story Hungbu-geon has been passed down over the years in the form of pansori, (the Korean opera), and novel. The story of Hungbu-geon is thought to have originated from one of four sources including Korean, a mixture of Korean and foreign, Mongolian, and Buddhist narratives. Japanese and Mongolian narratives include stories about good and evil brothers, of an animal returning favor, and of limitless treasure, and Malaysian and Indonesian folktales share all three themes and emphasise the reward of virtue and the punishment of vice, which make them the closest to the Korean tale. Both the Malaysian and Indonesian folktales share the common theme of a good person living together with others in a community, with the Malaysian focusing on respect for parents and brotherly love, whereas the Indonesian on the encouragement of social altruism by painting a negative picture of a selfish man. In fact, more specific similarities can be found between the Tale of Hungbu and Nolbu and its Malay counterparts, in particular, the animal returning a favor. The character in the Malaysian story takes care of a sparrow with a broken leg, just as Hungbu cares for a swallow with a similar injury, while the main character in the Indonesian tale nurses a sparrow with an injured lower back. The similarities continue in the things the animals bring to repay the kindness shown to them. In each tale, they display local color such as a seed from a papaya, a watermelon, and a gourd, respectively. All these folktales are grounded in the cultures of Malaysia and Indonesia, both of which rest on a foundation of Buddhist culture, which is itself rooted in Indian culture. Korean culture shares a similar mix of cultural influences and it seems almost self-evident that the origins of the folktale of Hungbu and Nolbu can be traced to Korea`s ancient Buddhist culture.