This paper aims at exploring a desirable direction for the assessments of literary abilities, focusing on connecting learning and assessment. For this aim, I analyzed some examples of assessments that had been conducted in the middle school and high school classroom, and could see the problems of the assessments of literary abilities; the objectives of assessments were unclear, the standards were not detailed, and the assessments were not enough connection with learning process. Through this analysis, we could grasp current status of teaching literature and explore a desirable direction for the development of literary assessments. To improve literary assessment, first, `assessment for learning` have to be stressed. Assessments for learning, compared with assessment of learning, are to diagnose student needs, plan next steps in instruction, provide students with feedback they can use to improve their literature ability, and help students see and feel in control of their learning. Second, assessment needs to examine the metacognition of literary ability. Metacognition refers to a level of thinking that involves active control over the process of thinking that is used in literary class. Third, scoring rubrics have to be more detailed, especially `instructional rubrics`. Instructional rubrics have the purposes that are both to give students informative feedback about their works in progress and to give detailed evaluations of their final products.