Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the major causative bacteria in dental caries. Xylitol is effective anticarious natural sugar substitute by inhibiting the virulence of S. mutans. However, long-term xylitol consumption leads to the emergence of the xylitol-resistant (XR) strains which means xylitol is no more inhibited their growth. We therefore confirmed the general characteristics and the virulence factors of the xylitol-sensitive (XS) and XR S. mutans for different concentrations of xylitol. S. mutans KCTC 3065 was maintained in TYE medium containing 0.4% glucose with 1% xylitol during 30 days at 37oC, 10% CO2 to form XR strain. The strains were transferred to new medium every 24 hr and the same procedures without xylitol were repeated for the formation of XS S. mutans. Both XS and XR were cultured in different concentrations of xylitol (0%, 0.1% and 1%) then, cell growth, acid production and mRNA expression of gtf genes were analyzed. Xylitol reduced the cell growth of XS S. mutans in dose-dependent manner, but not reduced that of XR. Xylitol inhibited acid production of XS in dose-dependent manner, but not inhibited that of XR. Xylitol reduced the gtfB and gtfD mRNA expression of XS S. mutans which genes synthesized soluble and insoluble extracellular polysaccharides, but not reduced that of XR. These results indicate that the virulence of XR S. mutans is different characters of XS strains, which suggests XR strains may have different cariogenicity of XS strains. Further study is needed to explain the mechanism related to extracellular polysaccharide in the XR strains.