Purpose: This study was done to verify validity and reliability of a neonatal patient classification system (NeoPCS-1). Methods: An expert group of 8 nurse managers and 40 nurses from 8 Neonatal Intensive Care Units in Korea, verified content validity of the measurement using item level content validity index (I-CVI). The participants were nurses caring for 469 neonates. Data were collected from November 11 to December 14, 2011 and analyzed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, intraclass correlation coefficient, and K-cluster analysis with PASW 18.0 program. Results: Nursing domains and activities included 8 items with 91 activities. I-CVI was above .80 in all areas. Interrater reliability was significant between two raters (r=.95, p<.001). Classification scores for participants according to patient types and nurses` intuition were significantly higher for the following patients; gestational age ( 29 weeks), body weight (<1,000 gm), and transfer from hospital. Six groups were classified using cluster analysis method based on nursing needs. Patient classification scores were significantly different for the groups. Conclusion: These results show adequate validity and reliability for the NeoPCS-1 based on nursing needs. Study is needed to refine the measurement and develop index scores to estimate number of nurses needed for adequate neonatal care.