Purpose: This study was conducted to examine the effects of simulation-based infection control training on the ICU nurses` perception, clinical performance, and self-efficacy of infection control. Methods: Thirty-eight nurses were assigned into two groups using a career stratified randomization. In the experimental group, the subjects received a simulation-based infection control training, whereas the control group participated in a conventional lecture-based training. Two weeks after the completion of the training sessions, the participants were evaluated for perception, clinical performance, and self-efficacy regarding the infection control. Results: The experimental group that received simulation-based infection control training showed an improvement in perceiving the infection control compared to that of the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant. In terms of the clinical performance, the experimental group and the control group scored 26.05± 3.22 and 18.53±3.37 points respectively, demonstrating a statistical significance (p<.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups in regards to the self-efficacy. Conclusion: The developed simulation-based infection control training showed positive effects in improving clinical performance of infection control over conventional lecture-based training, confirming that a simulation-based training is an effective method in advancing the practical performance of ICU nurses.