This paper examines the background of the formation and development processes of the tradition of Russian neo-classicism in connection with eclecticism and Modern architecture, and considers how the “spirit of the times after the October Revolution” was reflected in the trends of themes and aesthetic features of neo-classical architecture. The main trend in the Russian architecture after the Revolution was neo-classicism that corresponded with the Bolshevik aiming to propagate the magnificence and justifiability of the Revolution as a political end. Ivan Zholtovsky and Ivan Fomin, typical architects representing Moscow and Petrograd, respectively, revised and further developed classical languages and forms, having Classical order as a model of their creation. Zholtovsky emphasized the proportion and harmony of the Italian Renaissance architecture on the basis of architectural foundation of Ancient Greece, while Fomin symbolized the October Revolution and proletarian spirit as magnificence and simplicity, suggesting Red Doric on the basis of Classical order of Ancient Greece. Although Zholtovsky’s and Fomin’s architecture project could not be achieved as a real building, they had a significant effect on the Avant-garde as well as the overall Soviet architecture in the 1920s. Russian neo-classicism could be regarded as more “revolutionary” rather than the Avant-garde called as a revolutionary art, considering that the former was never fresh but imposed a weighted meaning on the revolution as a historical event and furthermore reflected the “spirit of the times after the Revolution” as much as possible.