흉벽 천공성 농흉(Empyema necessitatis)은 농흉이 흉막 외의 공간으로 확장되어 나간 것을 말한다. 결핵성 흉벽 천공성 농흉은 결핵의 드문 합병증으로서 특히 소아에서는 더욱 드물다. 본 저자들은 결핵에 노출된 병력이 없던 21개월 남자아이에서 7번째 늑골의 골수염에 동반된 결핵성 흉벽천공성 농흉을 경험하여 이에 대해 보고한다. 우리는 환자의 진단과 치료를 위해 수술적 치료를 시행하였고, 조직을 이용한 PCR 및 분자생물학적 검사에서 M. tuberculosis complex를 확인하여 항결핵제를 이용해 합병증 없이 치료하였다.
Empyema necessitatis refers to empyema that extends into the extrapleural space through a defect in the pleural surface. Tuberculous empyema necessitatis is a rare complication of tuberculosis. We experienced a 21-month-old boy with tuberculous empyema necessitatis with osteomyelitis in the right 7th rib. He presented with a mass on the right lateral chest wall, which was soft and nontender, enlarging for one month. He also had mild fever. The plain radiograph of his chest revealed soft tissue swelling and calcified lymph node on the left axilla, and his PPD skin test was positive. CT scan of the chest showed empyema necessitatis at the right lower chest and upper abdominal walls with osteomyelitis of the right 7th rib. He did not have concurrent pulmonary tuberculosis. Surgery was performed for diagnosis and treatment. In histopathologic findings, chronic granulomatous inflammation with caseation necrosis was shown and was positive for acid fast bacilli stain. In addition, M. tuberculosis complex was found as etiology by polymerase chain reaction. The patient has been treated with anti-tuberculous medication without any specific complication. (Korean J Pediatr Infect Dis 2011;18:80-84)