This paper presents an investigation into the process of modern knowledge of Western medicine being accepted in Joseon through the translation of anatomy textbooks. The study first analyzed the text of 『實用解剖學』by Imada Tsukanu and found the two following characteristics: the table of contents and composition based on the German anatomical knowledge and practicality through anatomical charts. The study then examined how the orientation toward the acceptance of German medicine and practical medical knowledge found in Imada`s 『實用解剖學』were embraced in Joseon after its translation into Korean. The translation of 『해부학』in the line of missionary medicine had the specific following characteristics: First, the table of contents in『해부학』 translated by Kim Pil Soon matched that of Imada`s 『實用解剖學』. The agreement of between the two books in the table of contents means that the nature of German anatomy, which offers grounds for the anthropological distinction of different races with a focus on osteology, was accepted in Joseon, as well. Secondly, Kim Pil Soon started as an assistant to a foreign doctor, became a medical student, and translated anatomy textbooks for beginner students like him and doctors in the field, thus sharing common features in career and publication purpose of anatomy textbooks with Imada Tsukanu. It is noteworthy, for instance, that the Korean translation of the book actively accepted the characteristic of 『實用解剖學』 that promoted the readers` understanding with detailed anatomical charts to prevent misjudgments with diagnosis and operation. Finally, the copy editor Oliver R. Avison was a doctor that had belief in the modernity, science and positivism of Western medicine. His attitude opened a door for collaboration between missionary medicine and imperial medicine in modern Joseon.