Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between response to violence, resilience and burnout and to investigate the factors that affect burnout in emergency room nurses. Methods: Data from 237 nurses in 15 emergency rooms were collected using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS 23.0, and the analyses included descriptive statistics, t-test, Mann-Whitney test, ANOVA, Kruskall Wallis test, Pearson correlation, and hierarchical multiple regression. Results: Burnout was positively correlated with response to violence and negatively correlated with resilience in emergency room nurses. Response to violence (β=.466, p<.001), resilience (β=-.308, p<.001), and religion (β=-.131, p=.011) were significant predictors of burnout, and they explained 39.9% of emergency room nurses’ burnout. Conclusion: Response to violence and resilience were identified as significant factors affecting burnout in emergency room nurses. Therefore, it is necessary to develop strategies to cope effectively with violence and to develop programs that can strengthen resilience.