8세 남아가 호흡곤란과 기면증을 보이며 응급실에 내원하였다. 극도의 호흡부전을 보이고 있었고 고유량의 산소 공급을 함에도 불구하고 88-90%로 밖에 유지되지 않았고 단순 흉부 방사선 검사에서 전 폐야에 불투과도가 증가하였고 중등도의 흉수를 보였다. 마이코플라스마 폐렴 진단 하에 정맥 macrolide 를 포함한 항생제 치료를 시작하였으나 2병일 째 간, 신장에 다기관 부전 및 급성 호흡부전 증상을 보였다. 정맥-정맥 체외순환막성산소화기를 삽입하였고 지속적 신대체요법도 병행하였다. 18병일 째 성공적으로 체외순환막성산소화기에서 이탈하였고 저산소성 뇌 손상 없이 성공적으로 치료되었기에 본 사례를 보고한다.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) is the most common causative agent of community-acquired pneumonia in school-aged children. An 8-year-old boy who had been diagnosed with autism looked severely ill when he presented to our hospital due to dyspnea and lethargy. He had fever and cough 7 days prior to hospitalization. He had signs and symptoms of severe respiratory distress. The percutaneous oxygen saturation was 88% at high oxygen supply. Chest radiography showed diffusely increased opacity with moderate pleural effusion. He was intubated immediately and admitted to the intensive care unit. Under the clinical impression of mycoplasmal pneumonia, intravenous clarithromycin was started. Laboratory findings showed leukocytosis, hepatitis, decreased renal function, and presence of serum MP immunoglobulin (Ig) M (+) IgG (+) and sputum MP polymerase chain reaction (+). On hospital day 2, the patient developed multiple organ failure with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was performed with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and was weaned successfully. This is the first reported case of an ARDS due to MP infection complicated by multiple organ failure that was successfully treated with ECMO and CRRT in South Korea.