Recently, people in the education field recommend introducing PBL in the classroom for self-directed learning. In PBL, an authentic task that requires a complicated problem solving process is chosen and students develop their problem solving skills through cooperation to deal with a task. To solve the task given, brainstorming or concept mapping that helps obtain various ideas can be useful.
In the precedent study, the process is suggested in the order of ‘Task Suggestion→Exploration of Task Solving Plan→ Collection of Material and Data→Solving of Task→Presentation and Assessment’. This may be helpful to developing problem solving skills, but it is still difficult to apply to language teaching as it misses a practice phase. In Japanese language education, ‘practicing’ for presentation of a completed task is needed more than an ability to solve a task. And pattern drill that focuses on communication ability or linguistic expression is more useful than linguistic form.
In the Assessment phase, reviewers can comment grammatical misuse, wrong expression, or expression that violates language behavior culture. However, an indirect way, like recasting, is better than direct correction or revision. If a problem is found during the communication process or expression, it is also possible to make students open a debate.