This is to organize opinions about ‘grammars to be covered in intermediate and advanced Japanese education’. The main points are to convert from prescriptive grammar which has been used until now to descriptive or pedagogical grammar, and from the level of difficulty to necessity or occurrence for grammatical items, and also change the educational method from an explicit way to an implicit way.
In grammatical sentence, meaning, function, and even verbal behavior culture are taken into consideration, as well as its form. At beginner's level, it is possible to communicate anyway since a conversational participant actively tries to understand even if there are some problems. But at intermediate and advanced level, intervention into communication process decreases and it may cause communication problems or misunderstandings. Therefore, these points should be considered in grammar teaching.
In grammar education, uttering-related things should be taught above all. Utterance consists of proposition and modality. Proposition is the core of utterance. So the grammatical items required to make this should be treated first, and then, the items involved in modality should be dealt with.
Recently, the direction of Japanese education has been changed to the way to meet learners' needs. To achieve this successfully, it would be advised to adopt in the order of grammar for problem-solving, grammar about notion and function, grammar with high frequency of use, grammar involved in structure, and lastly, grammar by difficulty. Particularly, it is recommended to teach these in an implicit and indirect way by using sufficient data so that learners could figure out by themselves.