Through globalization, the whole world is folding into a multicultural era. This era has escaped the current country’s and nation’s frame, and while experiencing a new form of social and cultural disputes, it has faced realistic problems such as racial conflicts, alienation, and discrimination. Especially in multi-ethnic countries, the conflicts within the nation are deepening and becoming more complex than in the past. Therefore, the national policy enforcement within the multi-ethnic country is becoming the core key word for the unity, maintenance, and improvement of the country. A Correct and efficient national policy enforcement could be the cornerstone of the multi-ethnic country; however, the regressive national policy could also threaten or dismantle the country, becoming its key of existence or destruction. And the ethnic-language policy plays a core role in that national policy. Ethnical identity can be defined as one’s individual’s feeling of belonging to a specific nation due to the shared national characteristic. The ethnic Language is the essential tool to maintain and achieve the national characteristic. The ethnic language is the nation’s representative symbol, and through the language, the national culture and identity are inherited. Therefore, the next generation’s ethnic language’s communication ability will become the benchmark for judging the national identity’s continuation. The sum of all formal management and administrative measures relating to the ethnic language is called ethnic language policy. The analysis research of the ethnic language policy is an indicator understanding the national policy’s identity aimed by the nation. As a scale that predicts the direction of the continuation of the national policy, the analysis research is massive in its value. This analysis research of the Russian ethnic language policy puts the analysis of the Russian government’s support policy for non-Slavic ethnic groups in Russia as its core. However, this analysis does not only review the efficiency of the Russian government’s ethnic language policy. Through the transition point in time of when Russia has truly entered the multi-cultural society, we will examine the identity and the direction of the Russian ethnic language policy. According to the policy’s identity and direction, the future of the Russian multi-cultural society’s future may change. This research is an analysis research using the collected documentary records to find differences between the Russian ethnic language support policy and the Soviet Union’s ethnic language equality policy. Firstly, through the analytic background from the times of the Soviet Union to modern Russia, the basic operation is grasping the diachronic approach method of the contents of the ethnic language policy. Through these kinds of processes, the analysis of the causes and basic characteristics of the Soviet Union’s and Russian ethnic language policy towards non-Slavic ethnic group took place. Later, using both the Soviet’s ethnic language equality policy and the research frame called the comparative analysis, the identity, limitations, and the objectives of selected analysis target, the ethnic language support policy (Core analysis policy: multi-lingual permit policy and the native language education support policy) was sought out. The policy comparison isn’t the differences between the advantages or the disadvantages. Using the analysis of the similarities and the differences, instead of the efficiency of the policy, the analysis revealing the character of the policy is considered as the core of the policy comparison.