The Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben has hitherto produced many problem-raising discourses on politics and history, which have largely relied on his philological approach to literature mainly dedicated to Dante Alighieri. Indeed he has tried to reconcile the philological exploration and the structural analysis appropriately, aiming to make his discourses on politics, history and philosophy based on a fundamental study of human being. This essay discusses the possible implications that the term ‘commedia’ in the title of the Divine Comedy has conveyed referring to the various comments and interpretations on it, which is linked to clarify how Dante’s poetic language relates itself with history, ethics, things and pneuma. This work, according to Agamben, will contribute to analyze the basic inclinations of Dante’s literature as well as Italian culture. In order to show it, Agamben has elaborately relocated, along with Dante, various writers, philosophers, theologians, and cultural streams so as to accomplish his close analysis of Dante’s texts; here his achievement is justified in showing that Dante’s literature pursues successfully representation of things, as literature’s proper task, as well as its sociohistorical and ethical role. In doing so, Agamben has clarified in a more radical way that Dante’s poetic language operates in the dimension of pneuma that does not allow the modern epistemology to reach. Agamben’s interpretation and evaluation of Dante are noteworthy in that they lead us to establish Dante’s world more complex and rich which, conversely, allows us to understand Agamben’s philosophy from its own fundamental bases.