The star of Ralph Waldo Emerson`s influence on American literature can never be extinguished. His Transcendentalism was a revolt against Legalism and Antinomianism of that time. It was not an anti-religious movement, but a serious one of young religious a`ntagonists who had coped with the vile authority of religion which suppressed the self of man. Therefore, it can be said that his Transcendentalism arose from the Calvinistic tradition of America. In Emerson`s life time so many people were spiritually wandering hopelessly in a state of irreligion. Emerson, who cried "The sun shines today also.", showed them the way to discover God around themselves, insisting that God exists and rules not only in the past, but even in the present. To Emerson who perceives in nature the teachings of God, God is revealed not through great miracles, but through nature. Just as Henry David Thoreau, who put Emerson`s Transcendentalism into action, gave his reason for giong into the nature of Walden Pond, saying "I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately to front only the essential facts of life.", Emerson`s heroes are those who constantly seek truth in nature with their intuition through which they can transcend all the physical aspects in this world. Ernest Hemingway also makes his heroes reveal their anti-religious beliefs through cries as "I`m not in His Kingdom.", or "I`m not religious." But we can see that they are rebels against the conventional religion that clings to Legalism. His heroes are saints who are in a state of mystical union of the soul with God in nature. They are affirmative men of the undefeated soul, who definitely acknowledge their existence in nature and transcend even death by seeking tenaciously only for truth in the world without being stained with worldly. In this way, through his heroes, Hemingway shows us the way that man can attain to the state of God. Thus, the heroes of Emerson and Hemingway are never the religious men of Legalism. To them, nature represents the appearance of God, or in other words, Soul, Reality, Self, Beauty and Truth. Their heroes reminds us of the first anti-authoritarian colonists who immigrated to the nature of the New World of America overspread with primeval woods in search for religious freedom and genuine belief in God. Here they could escape from the false and deceptive religious traditions and conventions of the Old World of Europe which suppressed the self of man. We can say, in short, that the view of nature of Emerson and Hemingway insists that man can attain to the state of mystical union of the soul with God in nature, and expresses the anti-authoritarianism in American literature in its endless search for personal freedom and human integrity since the coming of the first immigrants to America.