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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

현대영어영문학검색

Journal of The English Language and Literature


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 계간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1738-7620
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 : 영어영문학연구 → 현대영어영문학
논문제목
수록 범위 : 44권 1호 (2000)
5,200
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This paper aims at discussing how effectively and artistically Hawthorne expresses his theory of a Romance whose wold is a neutral territory of the Actual and Imaginary in his masterpiece, The Scarlet Letter. Hawthorne develops his view of mixture of the Actual and Imaginary in his fiction when he deliberately designs its setting and characters, and uses three main metaphors. In The Scarlet Letter the setting is bounded by both the actual and the imaginary. Hawthorne uses the history of the Puritan society, which gives its fiction a sense of reality. In the Puritan setting, the imaginary is basically built on the superstitious belief or fantasies of the Puritans. Puritans "real" world is mixed with their "really" imaginary belief. The characters like the setting, are bounded by the actual and the imaginary. Each of main characters is a human being in one sense but at the same time he or she is an allegorical type. Among characters, both Hester and Dimmesdale are more real than allegorical, on the other hand, both Chillingworth and Pearl are more allegorical than real. To convey the intermingling of the actual and the imaginary, Hawthorne employs the three metaphors of moonlight, the mirror, and the half-dream very effectively. The metaphor of moonlight, "making every object so minutely visible, yet so unlike a morning or noontide visibility," is "a medium the most suitable for a romance-writer to get acquainted with his illusive guest" as described in "The Custom House." The mirror reflects the physical reality and creates the semblance of the world. The third metaphor, half-dream, is effectively expressed in Hester`s fantasy and in Dimmesdale`s fantasy. The blending of the actual and the imaginary elicits the ambiguous responses to the work. Ambiguity is conveyed more effectively by the narrative strategy. The narrator plays an ambivalent role. Though the narrator is not a character who takes part in the events directly, he is an important figure throughout the work. Sometimes the narrator is deeply involved in the events of the work that he seems to ask us to feel sympathy for the characters; at other times, he maintains distance from them. Sometimes the narrator makes a direct address to the readers, but at the same time, he does not comment at all on even the crucial moments of the work. Instead he continues to say, "the reader may choose among these theories." After all, the technique of ambiguity presents us an opportunity for choosing one among more than two, though our choice is not easy. The whole vision is open to us. We can respond to the work with variety. It may be fruitful to understand our own ambiguous feelings about this work by placing them in the context of a Romance of a neutral territory of the actual and the imaginary and the ambivalent narrative voice.
5,800
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The ending of Dickens`s novel is in the form of a typical happy (closed) ending upon which recent literary critics tend to look down. This article aims to show that Dickens`s happy ending typical of Victorian literature could be seen as Dickens`s "superficial" and "disguised" strategy of wrapping up a story that his days required. This argument doesn`t mean that Dickens was "subversive" of the then popular closed happy ending form of the novel. It means that Dickens was right in the middle of Victorian literary culture, corresponding to the self-contradictory discursive characteristic of the Victorian period. In other words, this is an attempt to show that, as has been known, Dickens is the most Victorian writer, but in a different sense. It is my intention to put Dickens back in his time of history and assess his work from a perspective conscious of his time. According to my approach, Dickens`s ending reveals the typical discursive aspect characteristic of self-contradictory conflict between the artist`s role as a social critic and his or her natural romantic impulse. Especially, Bleak House and A Tale of Two Cities show this aspect most strongly. The two narrators in Bleak House take up different roles as a social critic and a romantic individual and tell the same story from a different perspective, but their difference remains the same throughout the novel. In A Tale of Two Cities, there is only one narrator, but as the novel proceeds, two different voices appear: one as a historian and the other as an individual full of emotions. Unlike Bleak House, this novel shows that one voice takes the full authority over the other in the end, but this happens only after it kills the coherence of the narrative, which in turn reveals that it is impossible to take up one kind of impulse, abandoning the other. In my interpretation, therefore, Dickens`s closed happy ending is too superficial, only for formality.

『 매기 : 거리의 여인 』 : 여성과 타락의 문제

민경택(Kyong Taek Min)
6,100
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This is a study of the problem of women and downfall revealed in Stephen Crane`s Maggie; A Girl of the Streets. Crane`s focus in Maggie is less on the inherent evil of slum life than on the harm done by a false moral environment imposed on that life. Maggie is a novel primarily about the falsity and destructiveness of certain moral codes in society. Crane reveals the structural evils of society and the distortion and prejudice of ideology owned by its residents. In Maggie, society is filled with anti-feminine, repressive, and patriarchical ideologies. Through symbolic and ironic technique, Crane suggests that a conventional belief or an obvious truth may be false and harmful. Maggie is the most vivid illustrations of Crane`s conviction that women`s fate and downfall is influenced by social circumstance and people`s ideology. Maggie is a symbol of purity in a mud-puddle, but her purity is destroyed by the very moral codes established to protect it. Although they are already contaminated by evil, Maggie`s relatives and neighbours condemn unjustly Maggie for her frailty and downfall. Crane reduces people`s morality and respectability to a hypocritical sham and a convenient justification for cruelty, irresponsibility, cowardice, and indifference. Crane underlines that there could be a serious difference between ideology and reality. Maggie`s tragedy is caused by patriarchal ideology and androcentric social system rather than a simple environment.

Joe Christmas in Faulkner's Light in August

(Ki Kwon Yoon)
5,200
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The purpose of this paper is to investigate how Joe Christmas in Light in August, epitomizes modern human alienated from the community as well as the origins of good and evil which WㆍFaulkner notes. Anyway in Light in August a central concern is with relation between man`s social role and private being: Hightower as a failed minister who rots in quiet neglect and Hightower as a ruminative observer of human folly, Joe Christmas as a harried mulatto who starts life without even a name and Joe Christmas as a bewildered man struggling toward the rudiments of consciousness. The one character, Lena, in whom the distance between social role and private being is slight, necessarily emerges as a comic figure. She stands for the outrageous possibility that the assumption shared by Faulkner and his cultivated readers may be false:-the assumption that suffering finds a justification in the growth of human consciousness. Like all of Faulkner`s Negroes, Christmas is also seen mainly from outside, but he is so graphic a figure that in a sense this limitation is entirely satisfactory because the theme is based not on any general notions about novels or Negroes, but on the inner logic of Light in August itself. I emphasize that Fulkner extents diverted attention from other substantial justifications for the title which appears within the novel as in that of images of a special quality of light which he had in mind. In short, this then is Christmas` tragedy: it is not that he is always fatally driven to refuse and reject, but rather that he has been so formed, and deformed, by his experiences that violence and defiance are his only means of self-assertion the causes of his isolation.

Mimetic Transformation : Harmonium

(Chong Kook Yoon)
6,600
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The purpose of this thesis is to study a poetic mode of mimetic transformation in the selected poems of Wallace Stevens in his early poetic period of Harmonium (1923) years in order to better understand the main feature of his poetry in this period. The poetic purpose of this mode is to seek the harmonious union between changing reality and the mind. To this end, Stevens tries to create one realm of resemblance by transforming objective reality by the imagination into an internal one, from which he finds life`s meaning and hidden harmony with nature. This thesis will look into Stevens` seven poems in Harmonium to show how Stevens demonstrates the poetic mode of mimetic transformation: "Sunday Morning," "Domination of Black," "The Snow Man," "Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird," "Sea Surface Full of Clouds," "Metaphors of Magnificio," and "Significant Landscapes." Stevens uses through the imagination the unitive or integrating function of resemblance by transformation. Here the change is the essential nature of Stevens` poetic identity, inducing resemblance. This mode is termed mimetic transformation or transformative resemblance that binds the discordant objects of reality with fiction of likeness or approximation. The mimetic transformation is the binding law which employs similes and metaphors for its poetic purpose and creates one realm of transformative resemblance. This mode always aims at incessant interactions between changing realities and the imagination to create desirable fictions and to find new aspects of life. He consistently suggests that things as they are must be seen by constantly moving perspectives. In this respect mimetic transformation is used as the binding metaphor for the different views. The harmonious union between discordant objects by mimetic transformation expands the possibility of sensing reality and reveals new hidden aspects of reality.

The Scarlet Letter 의 비극적 아이러니

이기정(Ki Jeong Lee)
5,900
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Nathaniel Hawthorne(1804-64), who has been known as a representative writer in the 19th century`s American Romanticism, is a remarkable ironist. He makes good use of the dramatic irony, which is a primary element both to present a theme or to form a plot at once to endow his works with a tragic quality because the tragic work gets its effect chiefly with `reversal`[peripeteial and catharsis through a pair of the opposite emotions, pity and fear. These are inevitably based upon tragic irony. Then, Hawthorn`s irony has close relation to a dualistic view of life. Namely, Hawthorne who regarded human beings as originally imperfect creatures admitted two faces in man that everybody is always unable to remain good or evil, so he did not draw the problem of their sin as a theological one, but rather emphasized the true love for recovering humanity. Most of the characters in his works are Puritans who are innocent American Adams trying to get an ideal world in their own way, but beyond their first purpose they become the heroes of tragic irony, isolated from a normal society and suffering from the various aspects of dehumanization or sin. Their falls are brought about by hypocritical action so as to conceal their secret sins like Arthur Dinunesdale, Hester Prynne, and Roger Chillingworth in the Scarlet Letter. With the technique of tragic irony, Hawthorne criticizes the dehumanization in Puritan society through the tragic processes of his characters, but his chief interest lies rather in the transformations of the protagonists than in their sin in themselves in The Scarlet Letter. In conclusion, making good use of tragic irony, Hawthorne builds up not only his plot which gives us constant interest in his works but also his theme that through a severe criticism on wrong doings in the Puritan world, opposite to the doctrine of Christianity, indirectly represents the wisdom of life that we should love one another to establish the true human society. The Scarlet Letter is chiefly composed of tragic irony, and his purposes or artistries are represented by it.

동성애 비평관점으로 Three Tall Women 읽기

이연자(Youn Ja Lee)
6,300
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Edward Albee, like other dramatists of the absurd, have dealt chiefly with various kinds of problems of human being in modern society, such as individual isolation, lack of communication, and the deterioration of material oriented modem society. According to his keen interest, he reveals that the failure of communication, the barrenness based upon the individual`s empty desire and materials of American dream. Albee, who deservingly won the 1994 Pulitzer Prize for this Three Tall Women, uses the theatrical device of having three actors play the dying woman at various stages of her life. He simply calls them A, B, and C. It`s a crisp act that explores the dimensions of A`s death. Albee conceptualizes and describes heterosexuals` negative attitudes toward homosexuality rather homophobia through the quarreling between son and his mother. Son has been away for a long time. Although his mother who is the most closest person couldn`t accept her only son`s sexual orientation. That simply having personal contact with a gay son does not necessarily affect heterosexual mother`s negative feelings about gay and lesbian. But so many times layer, Old mother can understand him. People with homosexual have long been stigmatizes. With the rise of the gay political movement in the late 1960s, however, homosexuality`s condemnation as immoral, criminal, and sick came under increasing scrutiny. When the American Psychiatric Association dropped homosexuality as a psychiatric diagnosis in 1973, the question of why some heterosexuals harbor strongly negative attitudes toward homosexuals began to receive serious scientific consideration. Sexual prejudice remains widespread in the United States. however, heterosexuals` attitudes toward gay and lesbian have become somewhat a little bit more accepting in recent years. Therefore, this study focuses on the Albee`s homosexuality and homosexual codes through his works. Thus, We can conclude that Albee insinuates as well as suggests that to change the society or to broaden our limit of thought are indispensible just as positive effort to understand another different sexuality- sexual orientation.

Emily Dickinson 의 글쓰기에 있어 읽기의 영향

조금자(Keum Ja Cho)
5,900
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In 19th century the society and religion didn`t allow the women spiritual freedom imposing only limited femininity on them, therefore Dickinson tried to express herself in writing. Her writing had been considered to embody famininity, identity female anger. Therefore she read and reread every Anglo-American Women writer of her time especially George Eliot, Elisabeth Barrett Browning, Charlotte Bronte. She had Influenced George Sand and her life and thoughts had much similar to Sand. Dickinson could touch with outside with her reading, and it gave her every imformation. She thought that women are essential in human life and only they made the world healthy. So she tried to speak all of them in her writing. It is the only unique method to speak. Dickinson had enjoyed her life retired from the world, secluded herself from society because the day time was just. like as "Tired Day". Especially night time was an infinite creative writing time as well as an activity time and space for her.

A Study on English Listening Appeared in a 1st - year Textbook of Middle School

김복식(Bok Shik Kim)
6,000
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This study is made with middle school students for the object on various matters of listening how the listening guidance should be made. Brown(1994a) explains that, to cultivate learner`s listening skills effectively, a proper of listening practice should be performed in various ways suitable for the goal by suggesting several types of listening. Instructions for learning of listening materials in a middle school textbook are mostly demands for passive actions. The meaning and usage of new vocabulary and phrases should be understood by teacher`s English rather than by pictures. Meanwhile, comprehension activities by teacher`s language should be performed before hearing recorded materials. Because, letting students hear recorded materials beyond their comprehension is meaningless, as well English cannot be understood only by a picture. Putting their thoughts in order and knowing what to listen for, beforehand, they can probably listen more comfortably.

명사 의미와 함축 의미

김창익(Chang Ik Kim)
6,300
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The purpose of this paper is to differentiate explicature, which is an assumption an utterance conveys explicitly, from implicature, which is an assumption an utterance conveys implicitly, and to claim that my differentiation is clearer than the existing attempts about it. Such attempts has been made by several scholars such as Grice(1989), Sperber and Wilson(1986), and Blackmore(1992). Their discussions are more or less complicated, so that the task we should make them clearer emerges. An utterance becomes an ostensive stimulus, and carries a set of various assumptions in the mechanism of verbal communication. Among these assumptions there are a set of semantic representations, which are assumptions a speaker intends. From them a proposition expressed can be selected by non-verbal contextual information, which removes ambiguity of a utterance, assigns referents to its pronouns properly, and enriches its meaning. The very proposition expressed was, in the past, considered the explicature of an utterance. But, the trend of modern research shows that the idea should be rejected. The reason is that the explicature of an utterance can not be determined until a proposition with a higher level clause which expresses a propositional attitude is discussed. By doing so, the concept of explicature becomes more clear-cut. Implicature is a product of inferential process done in a particular context, based on the explicature involved. Implicature can be divided into two subclasses: one is implicational premise and the other implicational conclusion. The former is the implicature which is accessible to everyone menifestly. The latter is the implicature which can be inferred on the basis of the implicational premise. Implicature can be also classified according to the degree of menifestation: the strongest, strong, and weak one. The strongest implicature refers to the assumption with the highest degree of menifestation. The case is that a hearer has to restore the assumption and a speaker takes the responsibility for its truth. The strong implicature is a less determinate assumption than the strongest one. In this case a hearer is free from the duty of restoring the assumption and a speaker does not guarantee its truth. The weak implicature is a almost-indeterminate assumption. The case is that a hearer assumes complete resposibility for its restoration. Meanwhile, relevance theory, which is proposed as a pragmatic principle, dominates the pursuit of explicature and the restoration of implicature. Thus the relevance principle is considered as a general principle which can be applied to the act of human verbal communication.
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