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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

현대영어영문학검색

Journal of The English Language and Literature


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 계간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1738-7620
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 : 영어영문학연구 → 현대영어영문학
논문제목
수록 범위 : 45권 1호 (2001)

윌리엄 블레이크 예언시의 " 골고누자 "

강선구(Sun Koo Kang)
6,400
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In Four Zoas, Milton, and Jerusalem, Blake is dealing with the themes of fall as Paradise lost as the state of Albion`s sleeping and redemption as Pardadise regained as the state of Albion`s awaking. These are based on the state of Innocence and Experience, "Shewing the Two Contrary States of the Human Soul." Albion, the Ancient Man as Biblical mythology, symbolizes all mankind. Blake used his faculty of eternal or imaginative vision to look at mankind. He held that all spiritual vision would see the fourfoldness. The mythic names which he gave to the Four Zoas are Urizen(Reason), Luvah(Emotion), Tharmas(Instinct) and Urthona(Intuition or Vision; Los, when incarnated). Man, Blake says, is an inhabitant of four worlds, apt to migrate from one to another as his thoughts, desires and insights change. The names which he gave to his four visionary worlds are, in ascending order, Ulro, Generation, Beulah, and Eden. Ulro is the state of ultimate error and the material world. Generation is the vegeated life and the region of physical love, whose symbol is Sex. Beulah is the region around or the state nearest Eternity, the land of sleep and dreams human love, whose symbol is the Moon. Eden is Eternity, the land of Imagination of pure creative activity, of Divine Love, whose symbol is the Sun. In the prophetic poetry, Blake attempts to estabilish the complete Man as the Eternal One from the fallen Albion. Albion begins to wake from his sleep of death by the Last Judgement of Divine Vision, Jesus, and then his Eternal Eden is restored. It mythologically symbolizes the spiritual journey from Paradis Lost to Paradise Regained as the unity of being as shown in Four Zoas, Milton, and Jerusalem. Then through his poetic vision, the Eternal Eden as Paradise Regained will be the "Golgonooza" as the City of God, the New Jerusalem which is the total form of all human culture and civilization.

오든 시의 서정성

김승윤(Seung Yoon Kim)
6,200
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This study of the social poetry of W.H.Auden examines the combination of lyricism with social comment during the early part of the twentieth century. The manipulation and control of lyricism as a formal, prosodic technique is viewed within selected works of Auden in relation to the particular social conditions of his time. The apparent conflict between the tone of certainty in Auden`s poetic voices and the inconsistency in his lyricism is explored in relation to his stated views on social reform. The relationship between Auden` s certainty of tone and his unstable lyrical structures is the primary focus in his early unrevised poems of the thirties. Employing lyricism as a technical tool for poetic criticism is seemingly opposed to the traditional nature of the lyric; however, Auden`s individual poetic style allows him to present this disparity between tone and content in a surprisingly fluid form, adding new meaning to an old term. The careful prosodic control employed by Auden results in melodic poetry that describes comparatively harsh and ugly social realities. The lyricism Auden uses to project his perceptions of the society he sees around him emerges as aurally pleasing despite the unattractive subject matter it describes. The conflict between tone and content subsequently raises the question of why Auden uses such a disparate combination of poetic techniques in his work. Using unharmonious, uneven, or discordant prosody would seem to be a better, or at least a more concordant, vehicle for the harsh social critique that he feels compelled to present.

The Function of Criticism in the Postmodern Age: The Literary Theory of Fredric Jameson

(Yeong Hui Kim)
5,800
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Fredric Jameson`s project is to establish an anti-transcendental hermeneutic model in the face of poststructuralist critiques of interpretation. In this paper, I tried to explain and evaluate his theory of interpretation and to point out both its merits and faults, the latter based on his reactions to recent critical trends. His apparent tactic is to sublate them into a larger system--an attempt to salvage the notion of "totality" from prevalent intellectual suspicions against "grand narratives." Central to Jameson`s view of interpretation, narrative, and reality is the allegorical process, which he uses in his discussions of interpretation and textualization in terms of conceptual or narrative schemes. For Jameson, the real (which he calls "subtext") is not immediately present, but already constructed through textualization. In this approach, one finds the influences of Lacan`s "the Real" and Aithusser`s view of history as an "absent cause." Jameson attempts to question and transcend conventional thoughts about interpretation that are based on dichotomies between subject and object and between fact and value, but is only partly successful because he is never completely immune from the dangers of idealism. His view of the real oscillates between "anti-transcendental" materialism and Kantian idealism.

「 제 5 장의 도살장 」 : 아이러닉 소설

남승숙
5,800
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Vonnegut intended to write this novel as anti-war novel. He wanted everyone who read this book to know just exactly how bad war is. He wanted people to know the mental scars that war can carry. And he wants people to know the atrocities of war, and that it should never happen again. Although this novel deals with these heavy and sincere themes, it is not dark and boring but humorous and interesting. This effect is caused from Vonnegut`s unique use of irony. In this novel, irony is used not only in technique but in meaning and the author`s message. So, this paper is to investigate the characteristics of irony of this novel and to comprehend the meaning and the message on the point of ironic view. In characteristics, the irony in this novel has several elements. First, it implies the comic elements with black humor. Second, this irony is tempered with sentimentality. Third, it produces the unexpected effect by interweaving unrelated events and objects. Finally, it has tensed elements to maintain the thoughtful balance with the comic relief. This novel can be analyzed with story-telling on the point of ironic scheme. Vonnegut establishes the ironic situation collected with kinds of war and creates an ironic victim in that situation. Because he can not endure the absurdity, he escapes into the imaginative space to survive. But he returns to real life not having a serene life in transcendental space. With the use of irony, Vonngut gains the opposite effects that not only make serious contents lightened but give readers the insight to question the significance of the absurd universe in comic mood.

Modern Tragedy and Arthur Miller

문선정(Sun Jung Moon)
5,900
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The main thing that this paper explores is to clarify how Arthur Miller objects to the view that playwrights are unable to show human dignity in the modem period and how Miller develops the idea that they are still capable of offering an optimistic view of humanity. The protagonist of Greek drama pursued a tragic course by imposing moral claims upon his actions. His actions, motivated by his concern with the public or what was beyond his personal desires, revealed greatness of human spirit. From the Renaissance onward, tragedy gradually moved toward giving more emphasis on individual interests and self-consciousness. In the modem period, this movement has come to a mere presentation of subjective suffering and frustration that were imposed upon individuals by the suppressive power of society. Modern playwrights thus often failed to show that tragedy was an expression of faith in man`s greatness, raising a question about death of tragedy. This question was brought into debate by Joseph Wood Krutch who declared that modem playwrights could no longer produce true tragedy since they had lost a conviction of human dignity at the confrontation with the overwhelming society. Krutch`s view was shared by many critics who argued that playwrights were unable to show man`s greatness in the modem period. However, Arthur Miller refutes these critics and asserts that playwrights are still capable of bringing to the audience an optimistic view of humanity. Miller states that most modem playwrights present the protagonist`s glad acceptance of defeat and fail to give the audience the right sense of the tragic. In Miller`s view, tragedy is a mode of optimism that brings enlightenment to the audience. The enlightenment does not lie in the disaster of the protagonist`s downfall but in the hope of possible victory. This hope is produced in the audience when the protagonist demonstrates the invincible spirit of human courage that might enable him to succeed in gaining his rightful position in society. By exposing a possible victory that the protagonist might lead, tragedy enlightens the audience as to the right way of living in the world.

핀터의 파티와 카니발 이론 : 『 생일 파티 』 와 『 일종의 알라스카 』

우혜진(Hye Jin Woo),정문영(Moon Young Chung)
6,000
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The purpose of this paper is to apply `Carnival` of Mikhail Bakhtin in analyzing Herold Pinter`s The Birthday Party and A kind of Alaska. His plays are noted for their uses of understatement and silence to convey the substance of a character`s thought. All Pinter`s plays hold dialogues of common people, ambiguous dictions of characters and unstable unfinalizability which break the order of traditional play and create the remarkable `grotesque` . Especially, the abnormal family relation in two plays is an element of Carnival which challenges the order of patriarchal system. Besides, dialogues of The Birthday Party aim to make spectators laugh with the uses of absurd games and effects of festivities of party with characters` ridiculous actions and happenings in the party. All of them are the elements of Carnival. Pinter`s plays have the elements of Carnival basically. He converts the new birth of characters from the party(a modern mode of Carnival) in his plays. His plays as `the theatre of the absurd` express original isolation and anxiety beneath the inside of human being. But simultaneously they these two plays can make us feel liberated from the rigid and authoritative system. The problem of human crisis, which is the everlasting theme of Pinter`s play, shows not only a tragic nature but also a deconstructive nature which implies a new birth and liberation. In this way, the characteristics and effects of Carnival can be discovered in the process of making festivities with carnivalistic and grotesque characters and actions.
6,100
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The novel Wide Sargasso Sea centers around the story of Bertha Mason, the mad creole wife in Jane Eyre. The fact that Jean Rhys makes Bertha the narrative subject sets implicitly Jean Rhys and her text in opposition to her 19th Century literary predecessor, Charlotte Bronte, and her text. Bertha is a mute and devilish character in Jane Eyre, who is necessary to the story, but always she shrieks, howls, laughs horribly, attacks all and sundry-off stage. In Wide Sargasso Sea, however, Jean Rhys puts Bertha as a "plausible character with a past." In other words, Bertha is, as Jean Rhys puts it, "right on stage" in the novel. This subversive maneuver is the vital and characteristic task at the heart of the postcolonial rewriting.

나보코프식 저항과 문학

이길동(Gil Dong Lee)
5,500
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Nabokov, a Janus-like novelist whose novels may have various meanings, is generally seen as a doubly obscure novelist. With a tendency to create inaccessible works, a few privileged readers are capable of deciphering his intricate patterns. In his novels discussed herein, for example, Nabokov wants to make himself the sole authorial image of Nabokov the artificial self. And thus by using such characters to present himself to the world, Nabokov demonstrates his desire to control his own art by the power of his will. To accomplish this, Nabokov tends to put special emphasis on the absence of reality. While his novels do not represent his past, Nabokov does incorporate personal experiences in the form of autobiographies and biographies throughout his work. Such self-making is closely related with his own autobiographical experiences. Although he denies this fact, we can find much evidence to the contrary in his literary thoughts and work. From another perspective, Nabokov also denies any idea that is related with the Bolshevik Revolution, which severed him from the golden age of his childhood. Additionally, he distrusts the Freudian theory as a sort of subdivision of ideas and considers Marxism as well as Freudianism to be typical of generalization, objectation, or standardized symbols. His contempt for standardized symbols extends to the assumptions of a good many other literary theorists, critics, and writers. Furthermore, Nabokov criticizes traditional realism and T. S. Eliot`s generalized modernism, placing emphasis instead on individuality and concrete particulars. He also objects to the linearity of time in realism and modernism conventions, wanting rather to eliminate all categorization that can exist in the world. Thus, Nabokov strives to replace the categorized world with his own artificial world, one that he can control and create by means of pattern-making devices. This desire to control reality, which may be called the Nabokovian resistance or subversion, motivates Nabokov to invent himself into his own novels. Thus, his self-making in his novels becomes the basic elements in his artificial world. Moreover, in making artificial selves, Nabokov puts his autobiographical facts into his novels, distorting and redesigning them. So, in all of his novels, Nabokov creates more than two characters who can be considered as the author`s double or galley slaves. In this case, however, Nabokov controls his doubles, creating various types of selves in order to explore his own theories and create his own artificial reality. Throughout his work, Nabokov`s artificial self is a patterned self beyond a meaningless existence, which simply takes place in time. As such, Nabokov, moreover, is able to create a world where his theories can be explored and where he can live on in immortality, fulfilling both his own literary aims as well as his aims of life.

Tess of the D`Urbervilles 에 나타난 페미니즘

이주한(Joo Han Lee)
5,500
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The purpose of this paper is to examine Hardy`s Tess of the D` Urbervilles in relation to the Victorian economic situation and sexual ideology. In Victorian age, women were only servant and attendant and administering angel for the male. Hardy understood the difficulties of woman in patriarchal society and tried to describe whether a woman as an individual subject could be accepted like a man as a social being. So he chose as his heroine not Victorian female streotype but woman who have feministic aspirations although she is frustrated in social process. The social process is one of class and communal separation in the Wessex country as the capitalist farming. Tess suffer from the poverty of her family, but she shows much greatness through her life. She is always innocent in mind, sincere in attitude, patient in hard life and self sacrificing. She struggles against appalling circumstances. Hardy illuminates the faults of the sexual ideology, rigid religion and class by the relationships of Angel, Alec. Tess lose her virginity by debauched Alec. But she leave him and live firmly as an unwed mother. And she is deserted because of her past by Angel who is enslaved by the convention and cold society. Through suffering, Tess learn to live her own life by free will. Tess is different from the typical Victorian heroines who usually fit into the adaptive role of woman imposed on them by society. She overcome all difficulties and try to live her own life freely. She is vivid, vigorous, even dominating despite of many hardships. As the subtitle ` A Pure Woman` implies, Tess is pure in natural law nevertheless she committed murder. Hardy saw Tess not as fatally doomed characters or mere victims of Victorian sexual ideology. He saw Tess as complex human being whose aspirations are frustrated in the social process but who remain self-contained and even heroic. And he criticizes the absurd sexual ideology and hypocrisy of the Victorian age, revealing the image of active Tess, who would be a subjective human being of strong vitality and human will. In this sense, we would call him a humanistic meliorist or pre-feminist.

On the Principles of Politeness and Cooperation

윤성규(Sung Kyu Yun)
5,600
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Various theories of politeness and cooperation present principles of good communicative behavior` focusing on two functions of human language: the function of transmitting meanings and the function of establishing interpersonal relationships. In this paper, I review representative proposals on conversational and politeness rules, pointing out their drawbacks. Grice suggests that the Cooperative Principle (CP) is used effectively and efficiently to achieve rational interaction in our talk exchange. Lakoff claims that the CP is a subtype of the Politeness Principle (PP), while Leech views the PP as a coordinate with the CP within the broader whole picture of conversation. We examine the application of the CP and the PP in discussing English and Korean examples. It reveals that sometimes the maxims of the principles work together, reinforcing each other. It also shows that clashes between the maxims (or subrules) occur very often, while one maxim takes priority over the other. We notice that the interaction between the CP and the PP can make communication successful via the implicatures. It seems that the PP does not exist apart from the CP, but rather exist as one of the maxims of the cooperative principle in pragmatics. We can say that the politeness maxim is more or less universal, but the degree of its application varies according to the culture. That is, the Tact maxim is considered as the most important kind of politeness in English-speaking society, while the Modesty maxim is considered as the most important kind of politeness in Korea.
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