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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

현대영어영문학검색

Journal of The English Language and Literature


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 계간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1738-7620
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 : 영어영문학연구 → 현대영어영문학
논문제목
수록 범위 : 46권 2호 (2002)

윌리엄 블레이크 시의 신화적 신관

강선구 ( Sun Koo Kang )
6,200
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Blake deals with the theme of Biblical God in The Songs of Innocence and The Songs of Experience, "Shewing the Two Contrary States of the Human soul" based on the Bible. But he deals with the mythic Gods in his Prophetic works, The Four Zoas, Milton, and Jerusalem. Blake deals with the themes of the state of Albion`s fall(sleeping) and of the state of Albion`s redemption(awaking) in his prophetic poetry. Albion, the Ancient Man as Biblical mythology, symbolizes all mankind, and psychologically deals with the human consciousness. The myths of Alboion`s `the Four Zoas` are the wars between the Four Zoas and their Emanations. The mythic names which Blake gave to the Four Zoas are Urizen(Reason, Satan), Urthona(Imagination & Vision, Los), Luvah(Emotion), and Tharmas(Instinct). Blake represents the divisions and conflicts of the four components of the fallen Albion, meanwhile he has organized psychologically a fourfold visionary universe, dividing it into Eden as the Eternity, Beulah, Urizen, and Ulro. Blake represents Biblical God in The Songs of Innocence and The Songs of Experience based on the Christian tradition of sin, repentance, and redemption. But in the Prophetic poetry, Blake attempts to establish his redemption from the fallen Albion. Albion begins to wake from his sleep of death by the Last Judgment of Divine Vision, Jesus(Los, the prophetic poet) as the mythic God, and then Albion`s Eternal Eden is restored.

For-To 구문과 Of-To 구문의 의미론적 차이점에 대하여

권경원 ( Kyeong Won Kwon )
6,000
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The purpose of this paper is to find the semantic difference between for-to construction and of-to construction. In this paper the semantic differences of these constructions have been studied based on (1) the historical change of infinitives, (2) the meaning of prepositions such as for and of, (3) the relation between adjectives in the main clause and the subject of infinitive clause, (4) the relation between the adjective and the action of the infinitive clause. We observed that the infinitive with to was originally a noun in the dative governed by the preposition to, hence was in the first stages of its development a prepositional object modifying the verb. Now this to is not felt as a preposition but rather as a part of the infinitive itself. In the fourteenth century there arose a desire to extend the use of the convenient infinitive construction and people began to give the infinitive a subject of its own when there was no noun or pronoun in the principal proposition which could serve as a subject. The subject was put before the to infinitive and for was used as a formal sign of the introduction of this new subject. While the preposition of represents the inherent relation between two objects in X of Y, the preposition for represents the exchange between two objects in X for X. It is found that the adjective in the of-to construction modifies both the subject and the action of the infinitive clause based on the meaning of preposition of. So the of-to construction can be used as an euphemistic expression. What is important here is that the adjective primarily describes the subject of the infinitive clause. The adjective of the for-to construction does not describe the subject of the infinitive clause but primarily modifies the action of the infinitive clause. The properties of adjectives are [+noun], [+verb]. In other words adjectives are between nouns and verbs. Generally the properties of nouns are permanent, the properties of adjectives are stable and the properties of verbs can be changed rapidly. We found that the adjectives with nominal properties are used in for-to construction and the adjectives with verbal properties are used in of-to construction through these properties. In conclusion, the adjective in the matrix clause modifies the proposition of the infinitive clause in for-to construction. Those adjectives do not describe the subject of the infinitive clause but primarily describe the action of the infinitive clause. In contrast with for-to construction, the adjective in of-to construction modifies both the subject and the action of the infinitive clause. However those adjectives primarily describe the subject of the infinitive clause.
5,600
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Most critics read Wuthering Heights as a canonical English romantic love story. However, some critics, such as Wion, assert that this romantic love is modeled on a primal maternal bond. The central figure, Catherine, lost her mother in her early childhood, and seeks a maternal figure to nurture and care for her. She looks to Nelly Dean for the understanding and comfort that a mother might give. It might be odd to think of the relationship between Catherine and Heathcliff as a displaced version of the symbiotic relationship between a mother and a child (they are rebellious and resistant). However, the conflict they experience originates from the ambivalent feelings of oneness and separation that a child experiences in its relationship with its mother. Heathcliff is the whole world to Catherine, as the mother is the whole world to the symbiotic child; the boundary between Catherine and her world is ambiguous and problematic. In one telling scene, Catherine sees herself through the mirror; she blurs inner and outer self and loses her identity. At the beginning of this scene, Catherine stares at the mirror and asks, "Is that Catherine Linton?" She knows that what she sees is only her reflection: Catherine is like a child in Lacan`s mirror stage, in which she cannot separate herself from others. Catherine wants to remain in her childhood, and being a child is her daughter Cathy`s way of "being myself." Catherine`s wish to be a child means her reiection of an adult role (motherhood). Dying as she gives birth, she is released to become the ghostly child who appears to Lockwood. The other becomes a child: The child becomes a mother. More than her mother, Cathy represents a successful passage through the difficult rites of adolescence; the search for self, and the sharing of self with others. Cathy mothers Hareton and her own father. Catherine`s desire for maternal love is unfulfilled; her daughter demonstrates active maternal love toward men. Emily Bronte¨ emphasizes the power of maternal influence and the influence of female community through the depiction of the second-generation Cathy in Wuthering Heights.

타임 포켓과 Half-Past 시론: 『바람부는 밤의 광상곡』 새로운 읽기

김형태 ( Hyung Tae Kim )
6,000
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The present study attempts to read "Rhapsody on a Windy Night" with a new approach, putting a focus on the dual time structure of which the poem consists. The time of real life is expressed in the `o`clock` type, and the time under the influence of the moon`s incantation in the `half-past` form. The time in the poem runs from twelve o`clock through half-past one, half-past two, and half-past three, to four o`clock. Half-pasts occupy the places for o`clock. During the spell between twelve and four, the time of real life is suspended as Eliot experienced on a Boston street in June 1910. In the suspended time that can be called a time packet, the poet exercises creation swimming freely in the sea of his own deep memory. So `half-pastness` is a real-life-filtered timelessness. Furthermore half-pastness is related to Eliot`s aesthetics in some way. He compares a poet to a madman who shakes a sunless dry geranium. A sunless dry flower has lost its life but keeps the proper form without being rotten for a long time. This is a poetic version of the depersonalization theory in "Tradition and Individual Talent." Depersonalization means that the writer`s `emotion / life / matter` should be filtered and that only his `feeling / idea / form/ should pass in writing poems. Eliot`s philosophy of `half-pastness` originates from his idealism and thought of purification. And this kind of view solves all the knots of obscurity in the poem.

『최후의 모히칸족』에 나타난 성과 인종의 담론

민경택 ( Kyung Taek Min )
6,200
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The purpose of this article is to illuminate how James Fenimore Cooper reveals his prejudices on gender and race in The Last of the Mohicans. His prejudices on gender and race are embedded in patriarchal and racial discourses in which Cooper textualizes his views on the gender and racial ideologies of contemporary society and politics. Like other contemporary writers, who were concerned in Indian race, Cooper dramatized it in his fictions. In The Last of Mohicans, he deals with the subjects of women and Indian race with ambiguous and dual attitudes. Thus, many critics condemn his ambivalence and double attitudes revealed in his characterization in The Last of the Mohicans. In The Last of Mohicans, Cooper creates two main woman characters, Alice and Cora, as beautiful and charming, Alice is a white woman; on the other hand, Cora is a black-and-white woman. Both women are repressed in various ways because The Last of the Mohicans is the man-centered world in which society is governed by manly virtues and woman-centered social structure is rejected. His prejudices on women are revealed mainly in male characters` attitude such as Hawkeye, Duncan, and Magua. Women are maltreated and repressed by sexism and misogyny in the work. Especially Cora suffers from double discrimination, sexual and racial, because she is an offspring of a white man and a black woman. Cooper`s racial prejudice is also expressed in various ways in the novel. He dichotomizes Indians into two groups: bad and evil. He presents Uncas as a good Indian, but Magua as a bad Indian. As some critics points out, he has ambivalent attitudes toward Indian race. Hawkeye, outwardly, seems to be sympathetic about Indians, but, inwardly, he discloses a secret racial prejudice. He always emphasizes the purity of his white blood, devaluating and despising Indians` values. Besides Hawkeye, most characters, who have racial prejudices towards Indians, are sexists and racists. Cooper`s gender and racial prejudices are debunked even in the narrator`s patriarchal discourses. Upon close examination, Cooper can be seen to project his sexism and racism consciously and unconsciously through his characterization and patriarchal discourses.

심층의 시학 : 예이츠 시에 대한 융 (C. G. Jung) 적 실천

이규명 ( Kyu Myoung Lee )
6,800
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C. G Jung`s analytical psychology is basically different from Freud`s psychoanalysis in that the former is in pursuit of causation of daily events and the latter heads for synchronity of pre-history. Accordingly, Freudian positions focus on subjective experiences of history, while Jungian positions center on objective experiences of myth as racial memory far away from history. In the sense Freud`s unconscious is concerned with dissatisfaction resulting from the conflicting relation between desire and real world, and Jung`s is associated with archetypal qualities to completeness of self. Thus Marxism is believed to be related to Freudian theories that external and real world forms motives of unconscious and Jungian theories, centering on internal and primordial world that makes up base of real world, communicate with occultism and alchemy. When we think of the relation between literature and Jungian theories, we often remind of the practices of archetypal criticism born from Northrop Frye. But the meanings of archetypes argued by Jung and Frye are very different in that the former points out that archetypes clinically serve to accomplish process of individuation through quest of collective unconscious, while the latter reveals that all symbols are literarily converged into universal archetypes, taking such conventional examples as river symbolizes death and rebirth and sun energy and father principle. Of course there are their common points that archetypes imply mythical elements having no relation with real world. In the sense the way that Jungian theories can be applied to literary text is to analyse the symbols as agents of archetypes revealed in Yeats` poetry and amplify our poetic imagination to the meanings of their origin, overcoming `epistemological obstacle` resulting from Lockian tabula rasa, while Fyre`s theories overly adhere to myths of hero that usually go through the trials of quest, initiation(separation, transformation, and return), and sacrificial scapegoat. In the view of Jungian theories, in 「The Lake Isle of Innisfree」, "Innisfree" means maternal space comforting poetic narrator for frustrated idea in the real world. In 「Tower」, poetic narrator longs for completeness of individuation or restoration of self going through transcendence and integration. In 「Lamentation of The Old Pensioner」, "broken tree" means both libidinal retrogression and restoration, so here we find spiritual sublimation of libido as revealed in "my chair was nearest to the fire/ in every company." In 「Fergus and The Druid」, poetic narrator admires "Druid" symbolizing `wise man` as a major archetype, since he wants to escape from his `persona` and to remove his characteristic mask. In 「When you are old」, beauty is favored as essential system rather than formal system meaning skin-deep modes. In 「Leda and The Swan」, the episode of "swan" reminding us of the mythic event of between Zeus and Leda, the queen of Sparta in Greek myth means greek tradition attacking and ruling over western society possibly displaced as "Leda", so "a shudder in the loins" means the extension and acception of divinity.

셰익스피어비극의 탈중심적 관점

이행수 ( Haeng Soo Lee )
5,700
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The good and evil in Shakespeare`s tragedies can be regarded as relative values instead of absolute ones. In Hamlet, Claudius is obviously a murderer, but the dead Hamlet and Prince Hamlet are murderers as well. The two Hamlets are not entirely good and therefore are neither entitled to criticize nor seek revenge against evil. They themselves have evil attributes which are revealed in certain situations. In Macbeth, Shakespeare`s decentral viewpoint becomes clear when the witches say that fair is foul and foul is fair in the first part of the play. Macbeth is brave and virtuous, but his character becomes mean and cruel later in the play. The witches` prophesies about Macbeth`s Destiny prove to be equivocations that are transformed into foul happenings. Macbeth realizes through his evil actions that visible life in this world is but a walking shadow. In King Lear, Lear discovers his own evil characteristics in his daughters` ungrateful behavior when he is marginalized after giving away his kingdom and territories to his daughters. He confesses that his evil daughters are diseases of his own flesh. According to the proclamations made by Edgar and Hamlet, evil forces are necessary to achieve ripeness and readiness in life. If life in this world is a process of readiness and a ground for ripeness, evil forces have positive roles in making human beings complete. Just as darkness is necessary for defining brightness, evil is needed to give meaning to goodness. Shakespeare dramatized this decentralized insight into his tragedies and awakened another aspect of life`s truth.

Wallace Stevens 시 "The Snow Man" 의 "Nothing" 에 대한 선사적 응시(凝視)

한태호 ( Tae Ho Han )
6,600
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Stevens` poetry expresses the particulars and universals of reality into the total metaphor through the power of poetic imagination. His expressive poetic techniques of resemblance reveals the affinity with the meditative process of Zen and the self-consciousness process toward the symbolic world of psychology. I make use of his "resemblance" theory in Opus Posthumous and Lacan`s "gaze" theory to understand the signified of "nothing" in "The Snow Man." Lacan`s psychoanalytic gaze functions as a medium to find the significations of nothingness. Stevens` poetry is based on "the interdepnedence of are and nature" which implies the causation of existence in Zen, the poetic supremacy in general poetry, the religious supreme entity, and the psycho-analytic process toward Ideality, enough to overcome some differences in detailed aspects. Especially, Stevens` poetic consciousness toward the metaphoric Supreme Fiction or nothingness shows the close similitude with the Zen-like viewpoints and transfigurizations. His repetitive returns to Reality surmounts the flowery metaphors and presages the nothingness of all the fictive metaphoric resemblances. His poetic manifestos of "Eventually an imaginary world is entirely without interest"(OP 200) and "Reality is the spirit`s true centre"(OP 201) expounds the Zen`s supreme world of reality. I placed a Zenistic gaze on the signifying elements of "nothing" in "nothing himself," "nothing that is not there," and "the nothing that is." Its evasive innuendoes, fragmentary, multi-plex, and sometimes overlapping, gradually open its sliding doors to the meditative silence of a Zenistic gaze. Its nothingness implicates two-channelled gazes toward the Nothing as Being and the Nothing as Nothing, or the Nothing to see and the Nothing to be seen, or as a surely-existing reality and as a fictive imagination, or the unitive and the disjunctive, or the visible residue in totality and the invisible tremblings in transience, etc.

English Education in EFL Countries: Who can Teach English in Korea?

( Su Jung Min )
5,400
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This paper aims to show that in spite of all the justification claimed for the English-only classroom, there are many factors to prevent such classrooms from succeeding in EFL countries like Korea. The paper questions the policy of only native English teachers in the university English classroom. The TOEFL scores in three EFL countries and what topics students in the university English classroom in Korea are actually interested in are investigated. And the web-based English curriculum and ESP models are introduced. This paper argues that the English class in the university context in EFL countries can be taught more effectively by bilingual teachers rather than by monolingual speakers.

Study on Demonstratives this/that as a Discourse-Deixis

( Kee Tae Park )
5,200
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