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> 미국소설학회 > 미국소설 > 15권 2호

미국소설검색

American Fiction Studies


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 연3회
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1738-5784
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 : 호손연구(~2002) → 호손과 미국소설 연구(2003~) → 미국소설(2007~)
논문제목
수록 범위 : 15권 2호 (2008)

내포 저자 논쟁과 나보코프의 『롤리타』

권택영 ( Teck Young Kwon )
미국소설학회|미국소설  15권 2호, 2008 pp. 5-26 ( 총 22 pages)
6,200
초록보기
Since Wayne Booth created the concept of "implied author" in his book entitled The Rhetoric of Fiction (1961), the narrative term of "unreliable narrator" has been renowned in reading fiction, along with the return of the author repressed by Modernist`s aesthetic. The implied author is the literary version of the real author in the text as the result of reader`s inference, and is rooted in the postmodern epistemology regarding language as rhetoric. When Booth coined that terminology, the implied author indicated the norms for reading a text in which the voice of the author and the of the (character) narrator diverge and converge in a "dual focalization" or even in triple voices. However, after 30 years of cultural studies and political corrections, when the expression "implied author" has returned in line with the return of ethics as well as of aesthetics, such as is seen these days, the term needs to be revised and redefined. Some argue for including the cultural and historical background of the reader, but others argue against the necessity of that term, implied author itself. This paper introduces several scholars`s controversial discussions to reveal the reason that we need that term. Without the implied author we can hardly enjoy the intricate narrative strategy of Nabokov`s Lolita. Representing how an unreliable narration can be ethical by means of the artistic sublimation, Lolita displays a fine example to indicate the position where an implied author can be located in metafiction. In conclusion, an implied author does not disappear, nor does it need the cultural context of a reader. It is strictly inferred in the text itself through the reading process by the authorial "rereader," and needs to be relocated in accordance with the paradigm shift of literary form.
6,600
초록보기
This study examines the experiences of Korean transnational adoptees who have recently appeared on the literary scene. Somebody`s daughter (2005) and The Language of Blood (2003) deal with the transnational adoptees` search for identity in the context of America, a receiving nation and Korea, a sending nation. In the process of these two protagonists` search for identity, we can see the pressure of assimilation in the private space of adoptive family which reflects the racial organization of American society, the economically and politically worsened condition and the patriarchal social structure in Korea, and Korean people`s transnational aspiration and fantasy of America. Analysing how transnational adoptee subjects of these two novels negotiate both Koran and American society and culture, it is found that while in Sara of Somebody`s Daughter, the ethnic identity and culture is left unclear, Jane of The Language of Blood shows more attachment to her Korean mother and Korean cultural heritage.

벽과 울타리를 넘어서: 아메리칸 인디언 여성 자서전 문학으로서의 『파워』

김옥례 ( Ok Rae Kim )
미국소설학회|미국소설  15권 2호, 2008 pp. 53-71 ( 총 19 pages)
5,900
초록보기
Native American women`s autobiographical works seem to be one of the most effective literary genre for white people to recognize the reality of Native American tribal society. Both men and women share the power, but women take the central position as leader, warrior, and medicine woman. Native American women`s autobiographical literature has a kind of multigenre form. For example, Linda Hogan`s Power consists of Omishito`s story of personal growth and Native American myth. As modern societies have lots of boundaries, Hogan insists on the necessity of crossing the boundaries to realize the true humanitarian society. Power is a bildungsroman of Omishito, a 16-year-old Native American girl. Aunt Ama takes an important role as her surrogate mother. In the American Indian creation myth, there is the repeated cyclical movement between the destruction of the old, suffering world and the creation of the new, harmonious world. Ama feels deeply sorry for the present Taiga people`s desperate situation, which is symbolized by the weak and sick animal, the panther that is regarded as the tribe`s holy ancestor and totem animal. After having a visionary dream of a panther who urges Ama to kill the panther itself as the true way-out from the tribal people`s present situation, she decides to sacrifice the panther. She also recognizes the potentiality of Omishto as a future tribal leader. At first Omishito just watches over the tow worlds. However, Ama forces Omishto to participate in her expedition to capture a panther. After that, Omishto has to endure the tough situation of appearing as a witness in two courts scenes. The two courts represent westernized society and traditional tribal society. After recognizing Ama`s evaluation of them, Omishito finally decides to choose the Taiga tribal ways of life. Her decision is symbolized by her important role in a tribal religious ceremony in the last scene of the book. Native American women`s autobiographical literature always ends with the strong affirmation of their identities and value systems. Hogan`s Power offers a case in point. Native Americans have emphasized the importance of love as the true power for creating life. Hogan also insists that love is the mighty force for real humanitarian life, it has the power do deliver people from the physical violence that underlies the dominant power in modern society.

호손의 과학자들의 기독교적 윤리

김용수 ( Young Soo Kim )
미국소설학회|미국소설  15권 2호, 2008 pp. 73-97 ( 총 25 pages)
6,500
초록보기
One of Hawthorne`s main concerns is the issue on man`s sin-secret sin, unpardonable sin, problem of conscience, recognition of sin, or its influences on individuals and community. In his major works, he criticizes the rigors or bigoted morals of his Puritan ancestors, condemns man`s haughty pursuit for the absolute rivaling that of God, or doubts the possibility or realizing earthly paradise only through man`s good will. His scientists are not exceptional: they reveal the dangers of the scientists` arrogance and biased pursuit for scientific achievements, and warn the tragic outcome from their attempts to be earthly gods. He views that any artificial endeavors to better human society by improving unreasonable institutions or customs are useless, and that it is dangerous to interpret God`s will in his own arbitrary way and try to use in for the private interests or desire. His beliefs are similar to those of Calvinists who believe in the Predestination stating that one`s salvation is decided from the beginning and in the Original Sin from which no one can be free. This paper treats two types of scientists: the one is those who accept human limits in their pursuit of scientific truths and are cautious not to lose their humanity, and the other is those who boldly challenge God`s power and wisdom and destroy others as well as themselves. Examples of the former would be Heidegger and Owen, and those of the latter would be Aylmer, Rappaccini, Baglioni, Giovanni, Chillingworth and Westervelt. This paper analyzes these characters in the context of the adequacy of their scientific pursuits and results.

랄프 엘리슨의 『준틴스』와 미국적 시민 종교

김정주 ( Jung Joo Kim )
미국소설학회|미국소설  15권 2호, 2008 pp. 99-120 ( 총 22 pages)
6,200
초록보기
This paper is a part of the inquiry into African American novelist Ralph Ellison`s socio-political vistas. This study focuses on Ellison`s “antagonistic cooperation” with the mores of American civil religion in his posthumous novel Juneteenth. Into this political allegory, Ellison does not only try to reconstruct American cultural history of integration, especially by representing white America as the African American jazz musician`s adoptive son, but through the adoptive son`s rejection of his father, he also inscribes the white America`s historical amnesia and betrayal of the American principles. In addition, Ellison`s description of African American christian community led by Rev. Hickman can be interpreted as an antipode to Robert Bellah`s well-known idea of “American civil religion.” While Bellah sought to incorporate American history into a Judeo-Christian hero myth, Ellison presents a racially-inscribed, multi-layered American civil religion. Underlining the historical facts that African Americans settled down on the land where they had been scattered, Ellison represents their claim for the American land and for civil and political rights. Ellison`s appropriation of the American civil religion, thus, resonates with the historical experiences of African Americans and their vernacular culture.

사회, 정치적 그리고 문학적 역학구도 속에서 허만 멜빌의 『마디』 읽기

정신홍 ( Shin Hong Chung )
미국소설학회|미국소설  15권 2호, 2008 pp. 121-143 ( 총 23 pages)
6,300
초록보기
Herman Melville`s Mardi is regarded as “open text” which implies infinite interpretation is possible. Consideration of literature as a field of social science, and recognition of the social function of literature makes the reading of literature in society possible. This paper attempts to investigate the relationship between art and society by penetrating the cohesion between the inner meaning and outer presentation of the text, on the basis of work`s intertextuality. The reading of Mardi according to social, political and literary dynamics reveals Melville`s main concerns with mid-19th century society. Melville, who was in the center of the social and political scene at that time, uses Mardi as a strategy representing the political situation at that time. The Vivenza episode in Mardi is representative of political allegory, and plays an important role in fulfilling Melville`s intention to express his satirical view of mid-19th century society and furthermore, on the future American society. Making an allusion to Lombardo, an epic poet, who completed `Koztanza,` proves that Melville views the birth of national literature showing America`s own national identity from an optimistic light.

중간 항로와 흑인 정체성의 재개념화: 찰스 존슨의 『중간 항로』

정정미 ( Jung Mee Jung )
미국소설학회|미국소설  15권 2호, 2008 pp. 145-170 ( 총 26 pages)
6,600
초록보기
The contemporary black authors recreate in their fiction the conditions of slavery and of the Middle Passage to rewrite history and understand it in American and African American culture in general. Though Charles Johnson is often included among them, this thesis argues he is not only revising white masters` version of history but also resisting other black writers` revision of the master`s construction of history. He neither denies the harshness of the nation`s racial history nor sees it as the determining fact of black life. Middle Passage refers to the historic transportation of Africans to the New Worlds; it also suggests what happens to an African American as he encounters Western cultural hegemony and a mystical and powerful African ideal. Rutherford Calhoun, the main character, the narrator, and the author of the journal of the Republic, embarking on an American slave trading ship, is forced to play a white man`s colonial game. He carries the `cargo` the African Allmuseri slaves who emerge as a fantasy of wholeness or a representation of the guilt of slave masters. Rutherford finds himself disillusioned by the skipper, Falcon who embodies the Western imperial oppression and the perspective of dualism, repression and conflict. At first, Rutherford cannot identify with the borders, where culture exists, because he is excluded from every community. He only mediates and constructs himself in between. Through voyage, Rutherford is examined and transforms from victimization to self-actualization. He now seeks a different kind of connection. Crossing cultural boundaries, body boundaries and textual boundaries, Middle Passage crosses borders of containment and identity, eluding fixity and resolution. This contradictory balance and this transitional space is the key to Middle Passage and to Johnson`s contention that the serious fiction is the “decalcification of perception.” Middle Passage is the realization of this liberation of perception.

목양신의 역사화, 탈역사화: 『대리석 목양신』을 중심으로

정혜옥 ( Hae Ok Chung )
미국소설학회|미국소설  15권 2호, 2008 pp. 171-202 ( 총 32 pages)
7,200
초록보기
The Marble Faun: A Romance of Monte Beni, the romance produced by Hawthorne`s sojourn in Italy borrows the landscape of Italy to explore the dialectic of innocence and guilt, employing conventional notions of Italy as the ideal setting for an allegory of the Fall of Man. The emphasis on the Puritan moral drama obscures the place and time The Marble Faun purports to describe. It is only a little less successful in banishing politics from its pages. The tense political climate of Italy could not have completely escaped the notice of Nathaniel Hawthorne, even though the decisive battles of the national resurgence began in May 1859, the same month the Hawthornes left Italy. While the allegorical romance conveys a fantasy of stateless and apolitical subjectivity, its political unconscious suggests a radical unstable national narrative that both worries over the demise of the Unites States and endorses the imperial vision that will sustain it. At this particular moment of the 1850s, wedged between the territorial acquisitions and the impending Civil War, a work like The Marble Faun could hardly help but register more than its author was capable of speaking. In Marble Faun, the antithetical figuration of Italy takes the human form of Donatello. The romance describes many transformations, but the one with the most serious repercussions is that of the "faun", Donatello, from marble to man, from colonized subject in Rome to mature master of Monte Beni. The representation of Italians, and particularly of Donatello exemplifies recurrent features of colonist discourse. The romance begins by establishing Donatello`s identity with the marble Faun of Praxiteles, and proceeds to recount his coming to life. The breathing of life into the faun coincides with the taking of life willed by Miriam`s eyes, Donatello throws her persecutor, the Model, from Tarpeian Rock. The model identified ad Father Antonio after his death might signify the Church and, therefore, Donatello mot only steps out of his faunhood into manhood, but also throws off the burden of the Church. The native, however, who rebels against his given identity must be banished from the society. The safe return of two Americans, Hilda and Keynon to conservative domesticity in the United States signifies the absorption of the potential narratives of Italian nationalism and subaltern revolt into the implicit narrative of postcolonial nationhood. The young Americans escape from the turmoil of Italian resurgence to their homeland without contamination through the crime of Donatello and Miriam. Nevertheless, they might not find the America they have expected to see because America was not peaceful and quiet country anymore.

『비의 왕, 헨더슨』: 이상향으로써의 아메리카

조윤주 ( Yoon Joo Cho )
미국소설학회|미국소설  15권 2호, 2008 pp. 203-224 ( 총 22 pages)
6,200
초록보기
According to the argument of Jean Baudrillard, a French post-modernist, in the distinctions between object and its representation, thing and idea have no longer any validity. In the form of thing and idea, Baudrillard points out a new world of simulacra which has no referent or ground in any reality except their own. A simulation is just an `unreal` myriad of images. Baudrillard calls these images `hyperreality`, a world of self-referential signs. A novelist describes a thing or an idea in view of the present situation and repeatedly reflects its images on his or her writings. In Henderson the Rain King(1959), Bellow reflects his images of America in terms of hyperreality though Henderson, the American not a Jew, experiences a lot of real accidents in Connecticut and Africa(even though some critics say these spaces in Africa are not real but symbolic). For Bellow, America is not just the land of living a life but the new world as a Utopia which could help Jews having suffered diaspora fulfill the dream to rebuild their own nation. Bellow believed that the American culture characterized by modern technology and science of the 20th century would be different from the old European ones and also would cure the problems with which we are faced. Therefore Bellow tries to create a hero, Augie March, in The Adventures of Augie March(1953) on the basis of Huckleberry Finn in order to find out the innocence in America. The `axial line` in Augie March symbolizes the universal truth we ought to pursue in our lives. In Henderson, Bellow juxtaposes chaotic America with primitive tribal nature in Africa and lets Henderson stand alone in the midst of confusing surroundings, the simulacre. Africa is not the world Henderson expected. However, there is no other difference between the order of nature in primitive Africa and that in America. Henderson, having a painful experience as a `rain king` in Wariri tribe, realized that his mission to give the tribe in Africa rain is another role for a man to live in this world. Therefore, he ought to return to America to live as an American and try to fulfill not just his but also Jews` dream to build a new world as an image of hyperreality. Henderson who is standing with an orphan and a lion cub breathes new air at the airport in Newfoundland, Canada before his final stop in America. Now he is ready to take care of anybody and anything in his new world. America provides endlessly its images as a Utopia and writers ceaselessly try to reflect them on their simulation.

The Ambivalence of Americanness in Edgar Allan Poe`s The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket

( Mee Young Kang )
미국소설학회|미국소설  15권 2호, 2008 pp. 225-239 ( 총 15 pages)
5,500
초록보기
This paper aims at revealing the ambivalence of Americanness as portrayed in The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket(1938). Americanness is a product of history and functions as a nationalistic rhetoric that aims to integrate America as a unity and reshapes the way Americans think and talk about themselves, most of which is optimistic like the concept of Edenic America. Poe`s only novel, The Narrative was written during the renaissance of American literature, a time o rising nationalism. However, the national consciousness that dominated this period of history was parochial, to the extent that it was merely a reflection of the white man`s society, alienating Native Americans, slaves and women. So, the narration by Pym, who enjoys the privileges of a white male southerner, betrays an ambivalence and tension between Pym`s America and its future in an ambiguous tone. The self-contradiction of American society is caused not only by the fact that immigrats from England were so thoroughly steeped in their own traditions, but also by the fact that their liberal democracy and Calvinism were in shameful contrast with the sacrifices of native Americans and slaves. Americanness and its ambivalence in The Narrative are seen in the American will to be free from European tradition, as well as in America`s attempt to partake of that tradition through its liberal democracy and protestantism, both of which run parallel with the ideology of racial discrimination. As a writer in the middle of the romance tradition in the period of American Renaissance, Poe reveals the ambivalence of Americanness through Pym`s narratives and his unconsciousness. This fact alone prompts us to rethink those easy literary assumptions that place artificial walls between our so-called romantic and realistic writers and to see Americanness as an ideological discourse.
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