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> 미국소설학회 > 미국소설 > 19권 3호

미국소설검색

American Fiction Studies


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 연3회
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1738-5784
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 : 호손연구(~2002) → 호손과 미국소설 연구(2003~) → 미국소설(2007~)
논문제목
수록 범위 : 19권 3호 (2012)

부적응에 대한 옹호: 진화 심리학으로 읽는 미국 흑인 문학

김애주 ( Ae Ju Kim )
미국소설학회|미국소설  19권 3호, 2012 pp. 5-30 ( 총 26 pages)
6,600
초록보기
Evolutionary psychology is rooted in Darwin`s evolutionary biology. It attempts to explain human beings` psychological traits in terms of Darwinian mechanisms that "lead back through unbroken casual sequences to the elementary biological drives toward survival and reproduction" (Carroll viii). Literary Darwinism grounded in evolutionary psychology brings literature within the category of cognitive and behavioral features susceptible to an adaptationist understanding and seeks innate patterns of human behavior system: survival, technology, parenting, mating, kin relation, social relation, and cognition. The methodology of literary Darwinism is, Joseph Carroll suggests, to connect the highest levels in the organization of human nature with the most detailed and subtle aspects of literary meaning. In other words, it is to connect the basic life history goals such as survival, growth, and reproduction with the finest nuances of theme, tone, and style in the organization of literary meaning in specific works (Carroll 189). This paper aims to read Toni Morrison`s first novel The Bluest Eye through evolutionary psychology and then to give an explanation of black characters` maladaptation in terms of Darwinian literary criticism. The Bluest Eye is the novel through which a tension between the affirmation of the primary need to parent and mate and the recognition of cognitive behavioral system is at work. Human nature motivated as parenting and mating in The Bluest Eye is harshly distorted, which shows the way in which the false cognitive behavior system matters. Maladaptation of Pecola can be explained as a case that calls upon audience to recoil from maladaptive acts by invoking that this is not how humans behave. This kind of reading is an ultimate explanation of literature while sociopolitical and identity-based reading is a proximal one. At the risk of oversimplified reductionism, the former is expected to supplement the latter with a new and scientific interpretation of human behavior and motives in literature.

리언 이델의 『헨리 제임스의 생애』: "대가"(The Master) 만들기 프로젝트

노은미 ( Eun Mi Noh )
미국소설학회|미국소설  19권 3호, 2012 pp. 31-49 ( 총 19 pages)
5,900
초록보기
This paper proposes that Leon Edel`s biography, The Life of Henry James, follows James Boswell`s model of Life of Johnson in its attitude, while adopting the "New Biography" theory which Edel expounded in his life-long study of literary biography. Edel`s general attitude toward Henry James manifests similarities with the kind of conviction and admiration Boswell had toward Samuel Johnson and his work. Edel also explores James`s life with a psychoanalytic method as a way of getting deeper into the interior of the secretive writer. The Life of Henry James has acquired its status as a masterpiece through the power of Edel`s imagination with which the biographer portrays James as an agonized son and brother turning into the ``Master.`` If the collaboration between Boswell and Johnson as biographer and subject has never been duplicated as some might point out, Edel`s biography certainly emulates the fame of the former with the excitement and art which only the best fiction can offer.

사라 술레리의 『고기 안 먹는 날』에 나타난 현대적 디아스포라의 탈경계적 자아 연구

민진영 ( Jin Young Min )
미국소설학회|미국소설  19권 3호, 2012 pp. 51-77 ( 총 27 pages)
6,700
초록보기
This paper examines Sara Suleri`s Meatless Days focusing on the notion of a cross-cultural self in post-colonial Pakistan. This autobiographical novel shows two different kinds of people in a contemporary diaspora: those who are still obsessed with binarism, a colonial heritage, and an origin-oriented mind and the others who show border-crossing, a post-colonial trait, and feel at home in other countries. In the novel males usually belong to the first group: they limit their own lives by taking an attitude of ``either/or`` toward life and the world. Pip, Sara`s father, is a typical example of this. On the other hand, females, including Sara herself, show the second type: they share a ``both/and`` or a ``neither here nor there`` value which widens their possibilities of self and life. Mair Jones, Sara`s mother, represents this diasporic new self: she, a Welsh married to a Pakistani, living in post-colonial Pakistan, shows disinterestedness in her origin, belonging, owning, and accepts differences and multifariousness, thus creating ethnic and cultural hybridity. She shows freedom and fluidity as a de-territorialized, cross-cultural, and post-national self, which the author portrays as a more proper way of living in the 21st diaspora, being healthier than a single-minded nationalistic way.

토니 모리슨의 『낙원』 텍스트: 상징과 해석

손기표 ( Ki Pyo Son )
미국소설학회|미국소설  19권 3호, 2012 pp. 79-100 ( 총 22 pages)
6,200
초록보기
Toni Morrison`s Paradise is an open text. The symbols and the stories in the text delay fixing their meanings, drifting endlessly, seen from Roland Barthes` concept of text. According to Barthes, a text, not a literary work, is a fabric of quotations drawn from many different cultures, having multiple layers and meanings. Among layers, there are numerous gaps which should be filled in by the reader`s interpretations. Ironically, a paradise is not found anywhere in the Paradise text. On the surface of the text, the original nine families of coal black African-Americans tried to build a paradise called Haven. This effort is followed by their descendents in Ruby near the Convent where five women live. There are no nuns in the Convent. All of these processes are double coded with the Biblical texts in the perspective of Umberto Eco. He said that post-modern texts have at least two layers called double coding for their different levels of readers. Zechariah, Haven, and the Oven in the text correspond with Moses, Canaan, and the Tabernacle in the Biblical text. But instead of truth and happiness, there are deceptions, lies, distortions, and prejudices in Ruby. The Oven and the Cross lose their power as symbols. Men in Ruby need a scapegoat to blame for their failure. They attack the Convent and kill the women, who are later resurrected. The Convent, a potential paradise, is destroyed by the men, and there is no paradise in the Paradise text. But putting together all the fragments of texts and filling in the gaps of the text, the reader realizes that a paradise is found in his/her mind.

『노인과 바다』와 쿠바

태혜숙 ( Hea Sook Tae )
미국소설학회|미국소설  19권 3호, 2012 pp. 101-125 ( 총 25 pages)
6,500
초록보기
Cuba is crucial to understand The Old Man and the Sea and the three terrains of ecopolitics, racial politics, and gender politics are necessary to discuss the Cuban aspects of the novel. As a part of supplementing and deepening those terrains, the perspective of tricontinentalism is proposed in this paper. Being suggested by Robert Young as a reformulation of postcolonialism, tricontinentalism calls us to explore the dynamic power latent in the non-western geographical spaces of Asia, Africa, and Latin America/the Caribbean and excavate the other epistemes and values sustained in the interconnected tricontinental cultures. To read The Old Man and the Sea through such tricontinental perspective means focusing on the African aspects embedded in the Latin American/the Caribbean. This Africanness has revived in the santeria. Maintaining Cuban indigenous culture and life, santeria is a syncretization of European Catholicism and African faith or myth of Yoruba. To Cuban indigenous mulatto people, the Gulf Stream is a blessed sea where male and female personifications of gods and goddesses exist and always protect them as well as their ancestors as when they sailed from Africa to Latin America/the Caribbean a very long time ago. In contrast, the protagonist Santiago generalizes the Gulf Stream as feminine, inconsistent, and precarious and regards it as a problematic object necessary to be rationally controlled and never asks the sea gods` and goddesses` favor. Even in Santiago`s ecological ethics of letting him speak to the fish as a friend or brother, the persistent human-centrism of a European white man is highlighted in his own strong will against sea creatures and sea gods. His dreaming of lions playing in a beach of Africa also exposes his ethnic nationalism by presenting Africa as a romanticized virgin land entirely separated from the violent colonial histories. This reading of The Old Man and the Sea, can make visible the other sentiments, epistemes, and values of Cuban indigenous or mulatto syncretic cultures compared with those of Santiago and/or the cosmopolitan Hemingway.

Revisioning History: Race, Empire, and Transnationality in Charles W. Chesnutt`s The Marrow of Tradition

( Jung Hyun Hwang )
미국소설학회|미국소설  19권 3호, 2012 pp. 127-143 ( 총 17 pages)
5,700
초록보기
Charles W. Chesnutt`s 1901 novel The Marrow of Tradition is an artistic representation of the revisionist social history of colonial racism during the 1898 Wilmington riot. The novel exposes the terror of white racism in the post-Civil War years, the white`s anxiety over black retaliation, and the disillusionment with political corruptions and limitations, thus resurrecting the entire history of American slavery. Into this narrative of concrete historical turmoil are dialectically interwoven not only Chesnut`s own personal experiences but also stories of his fictional characters, sunk and sublated into a broader historical vision, in which a dialectical relationship between the specific present and the past histories of the US domestic racial relations expands to include a global synchronic history of the Spanish-American War and the contemporary world`s imperialist frenzy. In short, Chesnutt delves into a particular piece of post-Reconstruction history from dialectical and intersubjective perspectives and rewrites it as a transnational historiography.

Metamorphosis from a Korean-American Bartleby to a Whatever Being in Native Speaker

( Dae Joong Kim )
미국소설학회|미국소설  19권 3호, 2012 pp. 145-167 ( 총 23 pages)
6,300
초록보기
Chang-Rae Lee`s Native Speaker has been regarded as a preeminent, catching yet problematic narrative of globalization and ethnic cultures in the U.S. This paper aims to examine how Henry, Korean American protagonist, becomes a scribing-machine in scripture economy, how he turns into an ethnic Bartleby using his famous formula I prefer not to to finally realize his belonging to a community of unidentifiable beings such as illegal immigrants or subaltern women. For this project, I extensively use Giorgio Agamben`s such ideas as "whatever being" and "coming community" as well as Edouard Glissant`s choas-monde. This paper begins with paralleling Native Speaker with Herman Melville`s "Bartleby, the Scrivener" to find allegorical allusion. This allusion also leads to the discussion of how Henry works as an invisible man in a scripture economy and how he starts listening to voices of the dead, employing Michel de Certeau`s theory. Then, I traces how Henry gets over this Bartleby`s fate by the recognition that he is just a member of a community where unidentifiable beings live in the opacity of an abysmal archipelago of relations which Edouard Glissant calls chaos-monde. After analyzing this community of unidentifiable beings and exemplifying subaltern women, especially Ahjuhma in Native Speaker, I end this paper with Henry`s final transformation into a speech monster.

Delta (▽), the Ek-static Site of the Feminine Love in William Faulkner`s Go Down, Moses

( Mi Jeong Kim )
미국소설학회|미국소설  19권 3호, 2012 pp. 169-194 ( 총 26 pages)
6,600
초록보기
In the wilderness trilogy, which has been regarded as the heart of Go Down, Moses, Isaac (Ike) McCaslin functions as the central consciousness of the book. Although he is portrayed, at first, as a possible agent to cure social evils, ironically, when he reappears as a weak and impotent old man near death, after a lapse of almost sixty years, he is awakened to his ultimate failure in the Delta by an unnamed young woman`s question of "love." Considering the book`s title and main plot, if Isaac McCaslin is an individual to assume the role of Moses, as the recipient of the command "Go Down, Moses" for the mission of redemption and exodus, he ultimately fails not only to save others but also to free himself from his ego-centric boundedness, and it is fundamentally because he fails to act out of "love." If Ike comes to realize his failures, too late, in the Delta place, by the woman`s visit and the question of "love," this paper aims to examine how the question of "love" is linked to the Lacanian ethical injunction to love "the other" who dwells there with you at the core of yourself as thyself, in terms of Agape love ("love thy neighbor as thyself"), and how the Delta place can be read as an opening of space where the call to ek-stasis ("standing outside the self," in Heidegger`s terms) occurs and thus new possibilities of being-together, of responsiveness to the other, can arise. In particular, if Lacan`s ethics is rooted in a view of freedom of the subject, this paper discusses how the Agape love is associated with the ethical topos of ek-stasis, with regard to the title of the book and the biblical motif of exodus.

"On the Opposite Edges of the World": Class, Nation, and Romantic Musings in Willa Cather`s My Antonia

( Min Jung Kim )
미국소설학회|미국소설  19권 3호, 2012 pp. 195-221 ( 총 27 pages)
6,700
초록보기
Followed by the initial spate of generous commentaries on the novel, a significant portion of critical insights on Willa Cather`s My Antonia since the mid 1980s has revolved around discussions of narrative voice and authority, storytelling, and gender, and thus the dynamic interplay of different social voices in the text. As Cather`s work is conveniently divided into five books, there is also the sense that it is about the narrator Jim Burden`s various stages in his life childhood in Nebraska, adolescence in the town of Black Hawk, life in college, adulthood, and temporary return to childhood community. Such book divisions encourage readers to perceive the first book of the novel, "The Shimerdas," as Jim`s shared past with the immigrant daughter Antonia, encouraging the understanding of the themes of the pull of memory and sentimental attachment to the vanished American prairie as central to Cather`s work. In this paper, rather than reading Jim`s romantic tendencies of contemplation and reflection as conditioned by his gender privilege as signaled by the proprietary title of the novel "My Antonia," I focus on the importance of Jim`s own perceptions of his classed and national identity as determining of his relationships to the immigrants. My goal here is not to make the inane argument that class, nation, and gender are somehow conveniently separable, but to illustrate how the novel charts Jim`s romantic inclinations as nurtured by his own recognition of his social and ethnic difference, thus the book being a powerful statement on the construction of identities as dependent on selective, at times violent appropriation of the trying experiences and differentiated individual realities.

Imprisoning (Un)reality: Photographic Allusions in The Great Gatsby

( Yun Jin Lee )
미국소설학회|미국소설  19권 3호, 2012 pp. 223-247 ( 총 25 pages)
6,500
초록보기
The Great Gatsby stands as testament to Fitzgerald`s engagement with and profound understanding of his historical and cultural milieu, as his emphasis on visual impression or "ocular centrism" expresses the cultural privileging of vision and its connection to modernity, particularly, "the culture of the photographic images." The visual centrality of Fitzgerald`s narrative and his photographic representations in the novel, however, do not just reflect the impact of photography or photographic reproductions which had become the leading visual experience and a prime symbol for a way of seeing in the first half of the twentieth century. Fitzgerald`s graphic representations and visual perspectives in the novel actually play a key role both in documenting the experiences or memory of the characters and re-creating an objective reality and in imposting visual attentiveness, rationalizing sensation, and managing the viewer`s knowledge and perception of them. This paper will explore how The Great Gatsby epitomizes this ambivalence about the photographic representations of the reality, that is, their dual and contradictory possibilities of being as a begetter of illusion and as a potential support to truer seeing or revelation of the truth. Particularly, this paper will demonstrate how this contradiction or ambivalence are represented through the novel`s narrator, Nick Carraway whose narrative of photography becomes a vehicle for creating the well-intended illusion and fantasy of the real, and thus for creating entirely new perspectives and of controlling emotional effects for the novel.
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