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> 미국소설학회 > 미국소설 > 21권 1호


American Fiction Studies

  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 연3회
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1738-5784
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 : 호손연구(~2002) → 호손과 미국소설 연구(2003~) → 미국소설(2007~)
수록 범위 : 21권 1호 (2014)
Sherman Alexie insists that transnationalism will be the best strategy for Native Americans to survive in contemporary America in The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian. The transnationalism in this article refers to Shari M. Huhndorf`s idea, “alliances among the tribes and the social structures and practices that transcend their boundaries, as well as processes on a global scale such as colonialism and capitalism,” and the conception of “the new man” in J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur`s Letters from an American Farmer. This article specifies how and why Arnold Spirit Jr., the protagonist of the novel, makes various efforts to overcome the nationalism agenda on Spokane Indian Reservation. By crossing over the cultural boundaries between Wellpinit High School on reservation and Reardan High School in a white town, he shows not so much the disadvantages of transnationalism as the benefits of making an apple of himself, “red on the outside and white on the inside.” Based mainly on the two theoreticians`s ideas in analyzing Junior`s transformative practices, this article investigates if Alexie`s transnationalism can replace the dominant ideologies on reservation.

윌슨의 지문 읽기의 문제점: 『바보 윌슨』의 마지막 법정장면을 중심으로

심계순 ( Kye Soon Shim )
미국소설학회|미국소설  21권 1호, 2014 pp. 29-48 ( 총 20 pages)
Mark Twain`s Pudd`nhead Wilson (1894) is considered to be the first novel to use fingerprints for forensic evidence in the courtroom. Even though fingerprints function as meaningful mechanisms in this novel, not much attention has been given to both fingerprints themselves and the connection between race and fingerprints. This paper aims to explore the specific way how lawyer/scientist Wilson is reading fingerprints in the final courtroom scene. Fingerprints are biological markers which show only individual identities and do not signify any ethnic or racial groups. But when Wilson announces Tom as ‘a negro and a slave’ in the courtroom, race-neutral fingerprints are being appropriated to reinforce socially constructed racial identities. Wilson uses fingerprints to prop up the fiction of law and custom which was prevalent under the Jim Crow regime. We can find the profound influence of dominant racial ideology on fingerprint identification. Twain makes use of fingerprints anachronistically to criticize the absurdity of the false social constructs such as racial categories of white and black.

여성, 잡지, 전후 미국: 실비아 플라스의 『벨 자』와 미디어 읽기

오승아 ( Seung Ah Oh )
미국소설학회|미국소설  21권 1호, 2014 pp. 49-83 ( 총 35 pages)
Sylvia Plath`s only novel The Bell Jar has garnered critical attention as a quintessential American female bildungsroman especially in association with the author`s autobiographical account of her coming of age struggle. The novel goes far beyond being Plath`s personal narrative as it extensively explores the American culture of the 1950s that defined and circulated the notion of femininity prescribed by Postwar America. Considering the various forms of mass media that operate to construct society`s views on women as well as women`s view of themselves, this paper focuses on the functions of print media embedded in the world of Esther Greenwood, the novel`s protagonist. Women`s magazines are an obvious communication medium through which the principles of femininity are conveyed, and Esther`s experience as a guest intern for a New York magazine both fascinates and disillusions her in the midst of a consumer society that promotes picture-perfect and mannequin-esque portraits of women. Using the media as a mirror, Esther recognizes her desire, guilt, anxiety and the repressive mold of postwar society. Her curious relationship with the print media of magazines, newspapers, tabloids, and advertisements, functions to delineate her self-portrait as she tries to understand herself. Though she never encounters a convincing, definitive picture of herself, Esther persists as an oppositional gaze in conflict with the dictates of the omnipresent media. In relation with the author Plath`s struggle with a mass media that drew on her public images and continues to mythologize her life, the objective of this paper is to analyze The Bell Jar as a social commentary on 1950s mass media and Esther as a complicating and complicated subject in search of herself in the labyrinth of glossy images.

『허클베리 핀의 모험』과의 비교를 통해 본 『앵무새 죽이기』의 인종문제

유영종 ( Young Jong Yoo )
미국소설학회|미국소설  21권 1호, 2014 pp. 85-107 ( 총 23 pages)
This paper explores one of the most controversial issues on Harper Lee`s To Kill a Mockingbird. Despite its dramatic success, Lee`s novel has been charged with racism and became involved in the censorship battle both in the U. S. and Canada. Some claim that the novel is a champion of the battle against racism in America, while others argue that it shows serious problems in handling racial issues. This simultaneous praise and criticism reveal a remarkable similarity between this novel and Mark Twain`s Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. In fact, since the first publications of To Kill a Mockingbird, critics pointed out the similarities between these two novels. However, their comparisons are limited mostly to superficial similarities, such as narrators, settings, and thematic issues, for example. A more careful comparison reveals there are significant differences between these two novels in their treatments of racial issues. Mark Twain`s novel subverts racial stereotypes by carefully developing Jim`s character. Lee`s novel, on the other hand, reinforces the “good darky” stereotype. While Mark Twain`s novel highlights the efforts of the African-Americans in the struggle for racial justice in America, Lee`s novel minimizes the African-American presence in the battle. Mark Twain`s vision for the New South is radical enough to warrant a much debated “evasion ending.” Lee`s vision, on the other hand, can be called “Jim Crow” liberalism at most. Thus, this paper answers the charge of racism on To Kill a Mockingbird by comparing it to Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.

아시아계 미국문학의 문화 민족주의 비판: 단 리의 『예술가 연합』

이귀우 ( Gui Woo Lee )
미국소설학회|미국소설  21권 1호, 2014 pp. 109-126 ( 총 18 pages)
Don Lee`s The Collective (2012) presents a portrait of young Asian American writers situated in a “postracial” America. The plot`s metafictional theme focuses on the Gatsby-like Korean-American writer, Joshua Yoon, whose story is told by the first-person narrator Eric Cho, a third-generation Korean-American writer. The main issue for these minority writers is what their responsibilities and obligations are in regard to race. Joshua insists on taking a culturally nationalist position, arguing that Asian-American writers should limit their subject matter to Asians or Asian Americans. He is extremely race-conscious due to the racial discrimination he experienced as an adoptee growing up in, what he calls, the “racist town” of Boston. When Eric meets Joshua in Macalester College located in the hometown of F. Scott Fitzgerald, he quickly becomes fascinated with Joshua.mirroring Nick Caraway`s fawning of Jay Gatsby in The Great Gatsby. Eric is an unreliable narrator like Nick, and the attraction and repulsion Eric feels towards Joshua is effectively conveyed by this narrative technique. They form a circle of “Asian American Artist Collective” (the ‘3AC’) with a Taiwanese American painter Jessica Tsai, and re-establish the group when they met again ten years later in Boston. Joshua clashes with Esther Xing, another Asian-American writer. In the multi-ethnic Asian artist group of the late 1990s, his culturally nationalist position is seriously challenged by her denationalized position. She criticizes Joshua for being outmoded, narrow-minded, and parochial, maintaining that minority writers do not have to limit themselves to stories revolving around identity or race. Her vision of the artist is one who is free to write beyond the boundary of race. Joshua fails because he, as an idealist, has trapped himself within the position of cultural nationalism. The Collective is a critique of cultural nationalism of marginalized minority ethnic writers, but Don Lee`s use of The Great Gatsby shows that Asian american literature does belong to the larger tradition of American literature.

『프레더릭 더글러스의 인생이야기』: 흑인 영웅의 탄생

최순근 ( Sun Geun Choi )
미국소설학회|미국소설  21권 1호, 2014 pp. 127-149 ( 총 23 pages)
This paper analyzes Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself, Frederick Douglass`s most famous work, focusing on the process of Douglass`s performing the role as an African-American heroic leader. As black writers have attracted public interest and attention, and various methods of literary assessment have developed, the works of African-American writers, including Douglass, have been reevaluated by recent authors and critics, after years of unfair critical appreciation. After published in 1845, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself has been read and understood as a story which criticizes the dominant slavery and its extreme inhumanness, as well as vindicates the right and freedom of African-Americans in the patriarchal and racist United States. In this autobiography, the author and main character Douglass took the starring role in the slave community, mastered how to read and write after recognizing the importance of literacy in order to be free from the slavery, and finally wrote his own story by himself, in spite of his unbearable circumstances in the 19th century. In one aspect, Douglass who takes the lead role of this self-made success story can be seen as a successful rebel against white racism and authority. In another aspect, however, Douglass alienates himself from his mother and colleagues of the black community, and deserts his name which was given from his dead mother so as to get a new one from the white man. Moreover, in this text, he paid no attention to his wife, Anna Murray, who played a key role for him to be free and famous as a writer and women`s rights activist, nor did he have affection or sympathy for female slaves whipped by their masters in public. Most critics have thought that Frederick Douglass in this autobiography was a self-made man alone against all odds, but with the help of his writing skills, Douglass tried hard to represent himself as an extremely special being, that is, an African-American heroic figure, who wants to have the consciousness of privileged white men, as well as the undercover desire to become a member of the white-male dominating society.

호손의 유령학과 로맨스의 정치학: 『주홍글자』를 중심으로

한광택 ( Kwang Taek Han )
미국소설학회|미국소설  21권 1호, 2014 pp. 151-173 ( 총 23 pages)
This essay investigates how Nathaniel Hawthorne theorizes and thematizes the oxymoronic.negatively substantial.existence of ghost as an epistemological and ontological question of modern reality and subject. At the heart of modernity, Hawthorne suggests in The Scarlet Letter, is the essential spectrality characteristic of the way both subjectivity and sociality are constituted and perceived. In the romance`s introductory chapter, “The Custom-House,” he not only portrays how his political, socioeconomic, and cultural condition is defined as a ghost-like mode of life, but indicates that the reality itself is built on its spectral ambivalence of the (un)real. The tale`s three main characters also show the collective way in which their respective modern selfhood reveals their negated subjectivity, only to prove its existential substance. Drawing upon the Kantian formulation of negative substance, I propose that Hawthorne revises the philosophical account of the spectral as a constitutive condition of modern thought and being in his romance theory and fiction so as to open the way for a new understanding of hauntology or a study of the spectral and its profound political significance.

“Historical Deafness” in Sherman Alexie`s Flight

( Hye Yurn Chung )
미국소설학회|미국소설  21권 1호, 2014 pp. 175-193 ( 총 19 pages)
By giving nod to postmodernist Kurt Vonnegut in his epigraph of Flight (2007), Sherman Alexie advertises from the get-go a postmodern bent to his novel. One identifiable marker of postmodern thought, according to Frederic Jameson, is “historical deafness”; history is no longer of any value to a postmodern protagonist who denies its relevance and instead preoccupies himself with the present and the now. Consequently, Alexie`s referencing of Vonnegut`s Slaughterhouse-Five (1969) seemingly foregrounds the significance of ahistoricity. And yet, Flight is a text in which history, be it real or imaginary, cannot be so easily elided. In fact, protagonist Zits` finding and claiming of his “real” self Michael is contingent on his “flights” back to and reconnection with the collective history of Native Americans as well as that of all Americans. The ending of Flight is ostensibly a happy one; Zits finds himself finally unfettered from self-hatred and is embraced by a wholesome All-American family (with Officer Dave, Firefighter Robert, and Nurse Mary) that promises him baseball games, acne-free skin, healthy food choices, and stability. Still, Vonnegut`s epigraph (“Po-tee-weet?”), arguably inserted to symbolize the meaninglessness of everything that`s been said, reverberates ominously throughout the novel and undercuts the optimism that the ending suggests. One may invariably ask: is the happy ending of Flight effected by Zits ultimately choosing to turn a deaf ear to history and to focus instead on the here and the now? Certainly, Zits gaining access to the American mainstream (via his newfound family) can be read as a positive move and perhaps an expected closing with Flight`s bildungsroman format. Nonetheless, I aim to interrogate if Native American narrative is yet again placed in the danger of being erased, distorted, and re-appropriated by the dominant discourse as Zits transforms into Michael and moves rather facilely from the periphery to the center and how Flight`s take on history is implicated in this problematic process.

Speaking through the Mask: Melville`s “The Piazza” and “Bartleby”

( Seen Hwa Jeon )
미국소설학회|미국소설  21권 1호, 2014 pp. 195-209 ( 총 15 pages)
In this paper I examine “The Piazza” and “Bartleby,” focusing on Melville`s concern with writing as a quest for truth and reality; how his quest deepened at the period when he was writing his magazine tales and how his reflections on writing resulted in the ambivalent and ambiguous endings in the magazine tales. In rendering isolated and alienated people and social barriers in commercialized society, Melville is interested in revealing the shortcomings of the narrators telling of their confrontations with these characters. The reader is made to feel uncomfortable and perplexed during and after reading, for he shares the narrators` values and assumptions. In the two tales, Melville addresses the problem of writing itself as it involves a limited perception of every-day life, the relationship between illusion and reality, and the issue of truth-telling. This hints at the artist`s doom in which he has to tell the truth only through the mask. The ending of “The Piazza” points to Melville`s effort to endure a creative tension, neither obsessed with nor despairing of the bitter truth of reality nor totally ignoring the blackness of truth coming in with darkness. The deep pathos felt in the ending of “Bartleby” shows the author`s own recognition, lurked in the tale, that his fiction may not reach its destination like dead letters. It seems that the deeper Melville seeks to dive into the dark matrix of truth, the more does he become conscious of the limits of fiction and language and, paradoxically, the more masks he wears in telling truth.

Therapeutic Use of Image in Jonathan Safran Foer`s Post-9/11 Trauma Novel

( Hye Won Shin )
미국소설학회|미국소설  21권 1호, 2014 pp. 211-229 ( 총 19 pages)
Jonathan Safran Foer`s Extremely Loud & Incredibly Close describes the trauma victims` reworking of their painful pasts and sufferings caused by the historical events such as the Dresden bombing during World War II and the 9/11 terrorists` attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001. Despite the criticism of Foer`s hypertextual approach in the novel, I argue that his use of photographs and other formal techniques, borrowed from a flip-book and a blog (web log), is essential to represent the traumatic experience and its cure. The controversial flip-book ending, reversing the order of the images of a man falling from one of the twin tower buildings, suggests how Oskar Shell, a boy who lost his father on 9/11, attempts to cope with his mental wounds by reconstructing the chronological order. Foer turns the notorious falling man photo, which exemplifies the mass media coverage provoking morbid sensationalism, into the beautiful flip book displaying the boy`s aesthetic trial to recover from the loss of his father. In addition, the whole book can be read as a paper blog in which Oskar`s commentary and the accompanying photos and other semiotic materials illuminate each other to demonstrate the daily occurrences of his life. These techniques produce the virtual reality experience to evoke the readers` sympathy towards the characters and build a therapeutic relationship between the trauma victims and their audience through transference. Avoiding a simple generalization of human experience or chauvinist rhetoric, the novel depicts the boy`s interpersonal, intergenerational journey throughout New York City, connecting its residents who were affected by 9/11 and creating emotional bonding among the people of the same experience and beyond. In that sense, this novel is not just a book to read but an artifact to see and experience.