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> 미국소설학회 > 미국소설 > 21권 3호


American Fiction Studies

  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 연3회
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1738-5784
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 : 호손연구(~2002) → 호손과 미국소설 연구(2003~) → 미국소설(2007~)
수록 범위 : 21권 3호 (2014)

『오렌지 회귀선』에 나타난 신자유주의 통치성과 주체화

김가희 ( Ka Hee Kim )
미국소설학회|미국소설  21권 3호, 2014 pp. 5-31 ( 총 27 pages)
In reading Karen Tei Yamashita``s Tropic of Orange, I scrutinize the exclusion of the ethnic minority in the urban space, Los Angeles, and how this exclusion is connected with American neoliberal governmentality focusing on security and urban plan. I problematic ze the governmental technology for immigrants and marginals. The neoliberal governmentality utilizes the inclusion/ exclusion strategy according to which an individual is included or excluded in the society whether he/she possesses the ability of self-decision and self-control. I also explore the possibility of new subject from neoliberal subject, or the entrepreneurial subject of choice in the irquest for self-realization through examining protagonists in Tropic of Orange. How to live ethically as a third world subject can be answered when we consider the technology of self-care, or parrhesia which is a key practice of personal ethics as suggested by Michel Foucault. To make oneself a truly independent subject is a task that should be sought through the subjectivation process, which requires the courage to be able to speak the truth in any situation one encounters.

그웬돌린 브룩스의 『모드 마사』- 분노와 의지의 범위

김미현 ( Mie Hyeon Kim )
미국소설학회|미국소설  21권 3호, 2014 pp. 33-59 ( 총 27 pages)
Gwendolyn Brooks`s sole novel, Maud Martha, had not been recognized as a serious work of African American Women`s literature until Mary Helen Washington and Barbara Christian in the early 1980s stressed its importance and connection to the tradition examining its subtle but in-depth exploration into an African American woman`s psyche and individuality. Elaine Showalter also presents the work as a representative work of the 1950s in her 2009 historical overview of American women writers. Due to the focus of the work on the personal experience of the main character and her preoccupation with domesticity, the implication of Maud Martha in African American women`s individuality and subjectivity is not fully recognized. Showalter reads the work as representing the split and division in the psyche and in the life of the women of the 1950s. However, Maud Martha`s emotional reaction to the racist violence and contempt should be examined in its subtlety. Maud Martha is a subject who recognizes, shows, and controls her anger at the violence, not a passive one with split psyche or bitter irony. In fact, Maud Martha controls her rage against the violence as a way of maintaining the radius of her will and her search for self-worth. As she grows into adulthood and enters into motherhood, she experiences more of the harsh reality of racism, and finds the scope of her will become smaller in protecting the sense of self-worth and her individuality. However, she does not succumb to the realization, but renews her hope and determination in different phases and episodes of her life. As Aristotle sees the feeling of rage as a way of ensuring the sense of justice on the personal level and recognizing one`s subjectivity, Maud Martha, expressing her anger at the contempt from the society and the self-hatred of the black community, brings the sense of justice to her pursuit of happiness in motherhood and her search for self-worth within the small but intimate circle of family and personal life. Brooks`s representation of a black woman with conscious anger shows that the feeling of anger is recognized and expressed with the understanding of the social conditions and interacting with the changes in political and social ideologies. Maud Martha`s anger heralds the African American women writers` movement of the 1960s and 1970s in asserting the women`s individuality and subjectivity and building the social agreement on the justice of the movement.

『 여성 미국인』은 ‘미국소설’ 인가?: 미국소설의 발생과 대서양횡단 관점의 재고

손정희 ( Jeong Hee Sohn )
미국소설학회|미국소설  21권 3호, 2014 pp. 61-82 ( 총 22 pages)
Critics of early American novels have argued that the rise of the American novel was deeply rooted in the idea of building the American Republic in its nascent phase. In recent critical discourse, however, this thesis has been counterattacked by other critics who emphasize that migration and interaction across the Atlantic were a palpable fact in early American world. In fact, transatlantic studies leads us to reconsider the naming of William Hill Brown``s The Power of Sympathy (1789) as the first American novel. On the basis of transatlanticism, this paper attempts to open a possibility of embracing many works before Brown``s The Power of Sympathy as part of the American novel. Following this argument, this paper explores Unca Eliza Winkfield``s The Female American (1767) as one of the American novels. As one of Robinsonades, the novel presents an anti-domestic adventure story rendered in the transatlantic and American context. The central character is a woman who is biracial, multilingual, and boasts a transnational heritage. By projecting an ideal vision of a racially-intermixed female``s active participation in building a new nation, the novel turns out to be a kind of American national fantasy. Given these factors, the novel may be safely called as the American novel. However, the point of a transatlantic perspective is not only to recover similar novels as the American novel, but also to raise an awareness of rethinking the boundary of the American novel.

『죽은 자의 책력』에 나타난 시간의 서사

이강숙 ( Kang Sook Lee )
미국소설학회|미국소설  21권 3호, 2014 pp. 83-116 ( 총 34 pages)
This study explores Almanac of the Dead, the Native American writer Silko``s apocalyptic novel. This novel is a harsh indictment of the United States, and demands justice for the dead and the oppressed. In order to resist cultural and spiritual genocide, Silko, deconstructing the form of the novel, experiments with fragmented narratives and weaves dozens of interconnected tales to rewrite five hundred years of American history and envision a future where the tribal people of the Americas retake the land from governments that are corrupt at every level. So this essay is designed to elaborate one of the ways she replaces with Indian cultures those destructive western cultures which have oppressed the Americas throughout the past 500 years. Above all, she wants to alter the reader``s sense of time, because Indian time is circular while Western time, justifying the European progress model, is linear. Further, each day has its own identity, and the day returns to the same place where the story had happened earlier but with its details changed. This process symbolically strengthens the potential for the ancestor``s prophecy. Especially in a cycling time, a person is thought of as “a moving event shaped by and shaping human and non-human surroundings” (Allen 149). So in Almanac of the Dead, there is no character development. Consequently it means that to restore Indian time is to turn back to the pre-colonized time over the Americas, leading to a resurrection of Indian cultural identities.

나노기술 시대와 포스트휴먼 공동체: 린다 나가타의『보어 제조기』

장정희 ( Jung Hee Chang )
미국소설학회|미국소설  21권 3호, 2014 pp. 117-139 ( 총 23 pages)
This paper examines the relations of nanotechnology, Asian subject, and posthuman community focusing on Linda Nagata``s The Bohr Maker. Nagata``s construction of nanotechnological future is not a simple elaboration of the new technological development. She focuses on the relation between Asian subjects and emerging nanotechnologies through exploring the definitions of the “human” in the future. The text shows that Asian characters like Nikko and Phousita are victims of bionanotechnology and regarded as animal or freak by the Commonwealth. The Commonwealth dominates the old nations of Earth, the satellite Celestial Cities and the Orbiting Corporations through biological and technological law. Especially, the law of Commonwealth is strict on the use of bionanotechnology based on artificial intelligence. The new nanotechnologies by Linda Bohr and Fox liberate Nikko and Phousita from the bonds of Commonwealth law. The Bohr Maker enhances Phousita``s intelligence and she gets the power of healing others as well as herself. It leads to develop herself as a free and powerful leader of the underdeveloped community on Earth. Nikko``s rebirth in the biogenesis function and Phousita``s growth as a leader of the new community show more complicated examples of posthuman subjectivity and community in the age of nanotechnology. Their transformation of identity shows the possibility that new nanotechnology can generate a field within which the new politics of community and culture might be constructed. In particular, Nagata provides the new construction of power and subjectivity through turning attention to Asian peoples in nations such as Indonesia and India. She suggests a new way of envisaging the relation of technology and the formation of new community.
This paper examines how the contemporary discussions of posthumanism and gender migration are intertwined in Julia Ward Howe``s recently recovered novel, The Hermaphrodite. Howe presents her intersexual protagonist, Laurence, as a perpetual migrant who not only travels across the geographical borders but within and across the boundaries of human body. Earlier in the text, the term “monster” is used to indicate the abnormality or anomaly of the individual who manifests the characteristics of both genders. However, the novel gradually reveals how the intersexual body of Laurence becomes a site of radical insubordinate and provocative potential as its very indeterminacy resists and confounds intelligibility, categorization, and social placement within the antebellum identity discourse. By presenting the intersexual body as the locus where the rigid boundaries between gender, sexuality and corporality become incessantly obscured, Howe interrogates the modern construction of the concept of “human” and explores her own resistance to and deviance from contemporary heteronormative and body-oriented definitions of humanity.

The American Countess: Queer Metaphor and Moral Growing in Henry James’s What Maisie Knew

( Jung Sun Choi )
미국소설학회|미국소설  21권 3호, 2014 pp. 165-183 ( 총 19 pages)
As James shows, What Maisie Knew is preoccupied with visual performative effects of sex, gender, and sexuality based on materiality of bodies, dressing, cosmetics, and decorated body parts. Just as a series of visual performances blurs the boundaries of gender, sexuality, class, age, and race in the child`s point of view, Maisie is given a daunting task of redrawing the boundaries. Just as many critics agree with a reading of the novel as the story of the young girl`s moral growth, part of her growing is involved in her coming out of a passive receptacle through her efforts to disentangle herself from the confusion. I argue that James`s presentation of the American Countess is effective in influencing Maisie in understanding how to draw the line between this and that. The presence of the American Countess is crucial because she teaches Maisie the possibilities in plurality. Critics have argued about the identity of the American Countess and recently they claim the American Countess as a racial category. She is either an African American, an East Indian, or a Native Indian. However, as I argue, James`s portrayal of the American Countess is ambiguous, incomprehensible, and indeterminable as to be defined as the figure of queerness. The queerness manifested by the American Countess produces pivotal moments in Maisie`s growing into the maturing state. As part of her growing up means to know all and everything, Maisie reaches the point of knowing “all” through learning how to play a part in a scene staged by her father in the Countess`s apartment and she becomes an adult.

Pixelated and Pulverized War and History in Don DeLillo`s Point Omega

( Ju Young Jin )
미국소설학회|미국소설  21권 3호, 2014 pp. 185-206 ( 총 22 pages)
This paper examines the thematic functions of Douglas Gordon`s 24-Hour Psycho and Alexander Sokurov`s Russian Ark in Don DeLillo`s Point Omega to highlight the ways in which they show the ubiquity and power of image in propagandizing the War on Terror. Gordon`s 24 Hour Psycho stretches Hitchcock`s Psycho from its original 2 hour running time to create a 1440-hour video installation. By radically slowing down time, Gordon`s 24-Hour Psycho recuperates the jarring noise between images which is imperceptible when played at normal speed, whereas Sokurov`s Russian Ark rejects the idea of editing altogether by making a film shot with one long take. DeLillo features these moving image art as a parable of American war and history. Together, the two films in the novel entail the self-critique of the post 9/11 American society by taking the manipulation of image to the extreme. The novel foregrounds a war documentary project of Jim Finley, a filmmaker, who envisions a kind of visual haiku, shot in one long take. The documentary features an interview with a retired political spy named Richard Elster who did propaganda and lobbying for the Pentagon during the Gulf War. As the interview frequently forestalls plot development, the novel illustrates how the teleological progress of American civilization is in fact regressing on itself, which is also reflected in the title of the novel which reverses the “omega point,” the zenith of human progress. I construe this paradoxical double movement of possessing history and becoming possessed by it as something akin to Derrida`s concept of “archive fever.” Conflating the murder plot of Psycho with the disappearance of Elster`s daughter Jessie, Point Omega eventually exposes the suturing process occurred in real life war propaganda. Coupled with DeLillo`s persistent themes of the clash between individual and history, the rise of mass and paranoid/conspiracy theory, Point Omega shows how DeLillo disrupts the smooth procession of everydayness in order to examine the lasting effects of war, be it personal or political, by delaying release of them.

A Small Seed of Community Planted in the Midst of the California Dream Deferred in Of Mice and Men

( Joseph Yosup Kim )
미국소설학회|미국소설  21권 3호, 2014 pp. 207-227 ( 총 21 pages)
This paper aims to examine possibility of community in the midst of the California Dream deferred in Of Mice and Men in light of Michael Sandel`s liberal communitarian conception of the constitutive community. George and Lennie in the novel share a dream of owning land and running a farm together in which they appear to share the same, but impossible dream. Sandel warns those with the common “shared final ends” in the sense of sentimental community that their so-called community is still limitedly based on their individual desires and sentimental bonds. George and Lennie, however, do not look into the same direction in which the latter only wishes to raise rabbits with soft fur while depending on the former. What seems to be a sentimental community between them has not even started on the right foot. Lennie`s obsession with soft objects leads to the murder of Curley`s wife that eventually forces George to shoot him dead. Upon Lennie`s death, George`s California Dream seems to fade away or at least to be deferred momentarily. Steinbeck does not leave him alone at the end of the novel where he suggests a new friendship between George and Slim. As they walk up from the riverside to the highway, George`s once deferred California Dream is revived by possibility of community through Slim. Of Mice and Men could have been dismissed as a novel of sympathy towards a social misfit if Steinbeck left George alone upon Lennie`s death. Instead, he is planting a seed of community through George`s new comradeship with Slim who has revived George`s California Dream deferred.

Cultural Hybridism in N. Scott Momaday’s House Made of Dawn: A Mixture of Pan-Indianism and American Individualism

( Sung Bum Lee )
미국소설학회|미국소설  21권 3호, 2014 pp. 229-261 ( 총 33 pages)
In House Made of Dawn (1968), N. Scott Momaday experiments with diverse kinds of hybridization to find solutions for the trauma of displaced Native Americans. I underscore that if hybridity does create a dynamic tension of two opposing cultures to exert its transgressive power, it becomes the positive version of cultural hybridism; if not, it turns into the negative version of cultural hybridism. The protagonist Abel belongs to the former, whereas Father Olguin and Tosamah pertain to the latter. Although Father Olguin and Tosamah show the mixing of Christianity and indigenous cultures, they believe in neither of these conflicting cultures with the result of falling into cultural nihilism. Father Olguin attempts to Christianize Native American rituals from the perspective of the colonizer, whereas Kiowa Indian Tosamah tries to Indianize Christian ideas from the standpoint of the colonized. Despite their difference in ways of putting together clashing cultures, however, both of them cannot have confidence in either Christian or Native American cultures. It follows that they lapse into cultural pessimism. Their hybrid strategies do not play effective roles for tackling the traumatic diaspora of displaced Indians in American metropolitan cities. In contrast, Abel displays the positive version of hybridity. For his hybridism forms a dynamic interaction of white-modern individualism and pan-Indian solidarity. Unlike his grandfather Francisco who sticks to Jemez tribalism to be a native in the Walatowa reservation, Abel combines together Jemez and Navajo traditions to pursue cross-tribal alliance in American society. More importantly, he takes advantage of white-modern individualism as shown in the dawn race, one of Jemez traditional ceremonies so as to distance himself from Jemez tribalism. His solitary observation of the ritual without enthusiastic participation in it implicates the personalization of Jemez collective tribalism; yet, he does not abandon the significance of pan-Indian community. Passing through cross-tribal Native American cultures and white-modern individualism, he is eventually capable of mixing together cross-tribal vision and white-modern individualism. While Francisco adheres to Jemez indigenism in Walatowa reservation, Abel ought to confront an era of termination and relocation policies during 1950s when Indians were displaced from their reservations to scatter into metropolitan cities. His hybridism thus reflects socio-economic and political reorganizations of Native American life in modern American society.
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