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> 미국소설학회 > 미국소설 > 22권 1호


American Fiction Studies

  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 연3회
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1738-5784
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 : 호손연구(~2002) → 호손과 미국소설 연구(2003~) → 미국소설(2007~)
수록 범위 : 22권 1호 (2015)

포크너와 멜빌의 화자 및 시점전략 연구: 에밀리와 바틀비를 새롭게 기억하며

김미정 ( Mi Jeong Kim )
미국소설학회|미국소설  22권 1호, 2015 pp. 5-38 ( 총 34 pages)
This paper explores William Faulkner``s and Herman Melville``s narrative strategies which involve the reader in the construction of meaning in their short stories "A Rose for Emily" and "Bartleby, the Scrivener: A Story of Wall-Street." Particularly, by using a first-person narrator who tells a story about Emily and Bartleby after their death, Faulkner and Melville elaborately implicate the reader in the narrator``s ethical faults and failures; in order to go beyond such limits, the reader must carry out a self-examination which will lead to an ethical awakening and to acts on the responsibility for the other. In "A Rose for Emily," the anonymous narrator refers to the townspeople as "we" forty-eight times, and also as "they" from time to time irregularly. Significantly, the reason of the intriguing shifting of pronouns is not clearly suggested in the story. We cannot read Miss Emily Grierson until we have interpreted the narrator, for s/he is the medium of consciousness-which cannot be objective-through whom Emily is filtered. Considering that the townspeople``s voyeuristic violence and irresponsibility toward Emily is actually overlapped with the reader``s, the multi-layered meaning of the collective "we" which obviously implicates the reader ought to be carefully scrutinized, in order not to merely focus on the "monstrosity" of Emily Grierson. In the same manner, in "Bartleby, the Scrivener," the reader "I" is involved with the ethical failures of the narrator "I" in the process of reading the first-person narrator``s storytelling of Bartleby. Indeed, the story tells so much more about who the "I" is rather than who Bartleby is. And, thus, the reader who comes to identify with the "I" gains some new insight into him/herself by examining what the narrator tells regarding his significant change during his narration. In this respect, the narrator``s last sentence "Ah Bartleby! Ah Humanity!" must be always newly interpreted in terms of the reader``s performativity. In that reading as an ethical act must always be an attempt to re-member "the other" and to trans-(re)late and to re-establish the ethical relationship with "the other," I insist that Faulkner and Melville superbly invite the reader to share the ethical responsibility for "the other" in their novels through their elaborate narrative strategies to tell their stories of Emily and Bartleby.

『워싱턴 스퀘어』 를 통한 헨리 제임스의 "경험"과 "의식" 연구

노은미 ( Eun Mi Noh )
미국소설학회|미국소설  22권 1호, 2015 pp. 39-61 ( 총 23 pages)
Catherine Sloper in Henry James’s Washington Square has engendered conflicting images, one as a deficient character lacking in judgement as well as one who “does not yield an inch to her father” in the drama of clashing wills, as Edel puts it. As is usually the case with the Jamesian ambiguity, the unreliable narrater in the novel manipulates the languages of characters and his own in such a way that Catherine’s inner landscape is not brought to the reader in clarity. This study exercises a close reading to suggest that Catherine does appropriate the limited experiences she obtains in her confining environment, arriving at a self-recognition that will bestow rare freedom and independence out of her father’s dominance. Catherine has the final ‘choice’ over two important men in her life, her father and a suitor, and she exercises great influence on the two men in the process of finding a right path for her. Catherine chooses a path in which she retains her integrity and subjectivity. This study examines and traces down the inner workings of Catherine’s experience and consciousness, which would eventually liberate her from the exterior influences and forces impinging upon her ‘self.’

몽타주의 미학과 역사의식: 존 도스 패소스 소설의 서사구조에 대한 거시적 담론을 중심으로

이준영 ( Jun Young Lee )
미국소설학회|미국소설  22권 1호, 2015 pp. 63-92 ( 총 30 pages)
Montage as an aesthetics of fragmentation, initiated by modern paintings of reflecting the modern disintegration of organic community, has been explored by a wide variety of art, including literature and cinematography. Especially by Russian film-makers such as S. Eisenstein, V. Pudovkin, and D. Vertov, the aesthetics of montage has been evolved into the montage of “linkage” and “collision,” then reaching its maturity in the montage of dialectics, although it was the American D. W. Griffith who initiated “the parallel montage” and then inspired the Russians. Literary writers, both European and American, also embodied the aesthetics of montage into their fictions, as was clearly shown in the novels of John Dos Passos. As “contemporary chronicles,” the narrative structures of Dos Passos``s major novels from Three Soldiers and Manhatttan Transfer to the U.S.A. trilogy creatively hire the aesthetics of montage in order to portray the modern historical landscapes of American capitalism during the early decades of the 20th century. By the architectural use of montage, the critically-acclaimed novels have successfully achieved their literary goal of delivering the historical consciousness of dialectical radicalism in order to expose the inhumane contradictions of modern American capitalism. Therefore, the main purpose of this essay is to clarify how much the montage itself, not only as an aesthetic technique but also as a way of thinking, contributes to their historical consciousness. Most of critical discourses about the aesthetics of montage seem to have been limited to the analyses of its formal and technical aspects. However, this essay proposes that the aesthetics of montage has in itself historicity, therefore prefiguring a certain historical consciousness of cairology, which defies the modern concept of chronological time. W. Benjamin’s montage as “dialectical image” brings up the constellation between the past and the present, inspiring the utopian solutions of history, while the montage of G. Deleuze as the image of time, not the image of movement, induces the interaction between the past and the present in accordance of “the whole.” The novels of Dos Passos also employ, in their narrative structures, the dialectical montages to portray the modern history of American capitalism with the image of time, consequently inspiring the utopian moment of the dialectical totality of history.

여성의 시각화, 대상화: 라파엘 전파와 세 편의 미국소설을 중심으로

정혜옥 ( Hae Ok Chung )
미국소설학회|미국소설  22권 1호, 2015 pp. 93-130 ( 총 38 pages)
This article is to examine the visualization and objectification of women in Nathaniel Hawthorne``s The Marble Faun, Henry James`` The Portrait of a Lady and Edith Wharton``s The House of Mirth in relation with the Pre-Raphaelites``s representation of women. The Pre-Raphaelites revolted against the dictatorial policies of the Royal Academy in painting and the taste for ‘genteel`` in literature. The revolutionary and innovative spirit of the Pre-Raphaelite art initiated new approaches to perceptual and psychological realism. It also triggered new ways of seeing, feeling, and expressing emotions. The three novelists aimed to re-figure the characters of women into narrative texts by taking some of the innovative techniques and the themes found in Pre- Raphaelite paintings as intertextualization between visual arts and literature was a trend in Victorian culture. In the beginning the Pre-Raphaelite painters insisted on moralistic and earnest themes in their art. They were, however, gradually attracted to the sensual and visual pleasures which were revealed in the images of women represented as passive and submissive objects of men``s desire. The three American novelists in the article, each published at intervals, demonstrate the changes in the representation of women that are analogous to those of Pre-Raphaelite visual art. Although three writers succeed in expanding their voices by intertextualizing the two realms, they intend to go beyond the limits of visual art. Hawthorne shows the two opposite women, a pure angelic virgin and a woman of experience corresponding to the ones in the Pre-Raphaelite paintings. He lets us recognize the danger of categorizing women in two opposite kinds. James demonstrates a ‘new woman`` who defies the men who try to trap her into their frames and enjoy watching her as a kind of ‘tableaux vivant.`` Wharton criticizes the objectification of women more aggressively by overlapping the tragic life of Lily with that of Elizabeth Sidall, the wife as well as model of Dante Gabrielle Rossetti, a leading Pre-Raphaelite. The expansion of such verbal and visual boundaries, achieved through the coalescence of the two arts in these novels, may extend the messages of the novelists to the social sphere, rather than being confined to the aesthetic realm. At the site of the intertextualization, where the fiction merges with the reality more readily, readers will be drawn to confront more than just fictional issues: they will face the very questions in their lives. Eventually the readers will be encouraged to consider the alternatives and solutions of the problems the novelists propose more sincerely and genuinely.

『팔월의 빛』: 시련 중의 주체와 무법의 윤리

최현숙 ( Hyun Sook Choi )
미국소설학회|미국소설  22권 1호, 2015 pp. 131-157 ( 총 27 pages)
The purpose of this paper is to explore a subject on trial and outlaw ethics in William Faulkner’s Light in August in terms of Julia Kristeva’s theory of the subject. In Light in August Faulkner depicts the ultimate abomination of otherness, which shows the intersection of gender and race within Southern white myths. According to Kristeva the subject and society have been founded on the abject’s separation. Joe Christmas’s identity which characterizes this mechanism of abjection as a subject on trial illuminates the paradoxical state of otherness within his subjectivity against gender and race. His extreme exclusion of abject, heterogeneity but himself, draws ruin upon himself in the end. Faulkner suggests Lena Grove, a heavily pregnant woman, as an outlaw ethics for a subject on trial. The final aim of the maternal theory Kristeva emphasizes is the maternal love which is the attitude to alterity. That is, mother loves the other in herself and then she can embrace the return of the repressed other. In Conclusion, Joe Christmas’ tragedy comes from the rejection of his object. Therefore, My study suggests he should have developed his identity constantly by emptying and attacking inner conflicts as he met the abject.

인구, 개인, 문학: 호손의 『나의 친척, 몰리노 소령』을 중심으로

한광택 ( Kwang Taek Han )
미국소설학회|미국소설  22권 1호, 2015 pp. 159-182 ( 총 24 pages)
This essay examines how Nathaniel Hawthorne narrativizes the interlocking questions of population, individual, and literature in his early short fiction, “My Kinsman, Major Molineux.” The text, I claim, thematizes what Alexis de Tocqueville and Michel Foucault fail to explain in their respective discussion of population and autonomy, the paradox of subjectivity as a correlative of population. By focusing on this paradox, Hawthorne depicts how an individual constitutes his subjectivity by means of his involvement in the formation of collective identity of population which consists of heterogeneous individualities and desires. This involvement registers his contagion with and immunization against the homogenizing effect of population, which, I suggest, captures the way in which the reader recognizes the paradoxical mechanism of subjectivization in experiencing the contagious effect of the literary text.

“Be True!” vs. “From Pain into Sympathy”: Eliot`s Adam Bede as a Rewriting of Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter

( Kyoung Min Han ) , ( Yonghwa Lee )
미국소설학회|미국소설  22권 1호, 2015 pp. 183-207 ( 총 25 pages)
This essay compares Nathaniel Hawthorne``s The Scarlet Letter and George Eliot``s Adam Bede, focusing on the theme of moral transgression and its repercussions. Despite obvious indications of Hawthorne``s influence on Eliot``s novel, there are significant differences between the two novels, especially in the conception of female protagonists. This essay contends that Eliot``s division of Hester into Hetty and Dinah plays a crucial role in recasting Hawthorne``s rather theological question into a philosophical and even anthropological one that excludes theism. In The Scarlet Letter, Hawthorne intensely grapples with what constitutes moral sin. For Hawthorne, a failure to be true to oneself is a much graver sin than violating the rules and beliefs of one``s community. Instead of exploring what really is sin, Eliot suggests in Adam Bede that the more important question is to what extent one must share responsibility for moral mistakes and errors of one``s fellow human beings. As compared with Eliot, Hawthorne focused more on the self``s relationship to the community than on the community``s relationship to the self. If Hawthorne basically pursued emancipation of the self from blind and unquestioning obedience to communal norms and values, Eliot saw the need to establish a community based on a new set of values, a community which can have a tighter moral grip on its individual members who would otherwise suffer due to the collapse of conventional moral values that had hitherto served to keep their world in order.

“Homeland Security”: Native American Rhetoric of the Cold War in Leslie Marmon Silko`s Ceremony

( Seung Gu Lew )
미국소설학회|미국소설  22권 1호, 2015 pp. 209-229 ( 총 21 pages)
This essay investigates how Leslie Marmon Silko, in her first novel Ceremony, envisions the politics of Native American cultural identity and sovereignty within the mainstream frame of Cold War national imperative. Attempting to reclaim Native American political and cultural sovereignty in the paranoid environments of the global Cold War, Silko takes up the rhetoric of “hybrid patriotism” and “homeland security” in order to blunt the Cold War ideologies of rational individualism, national security, and ethnic assimilation that endanger Native American self-determination and communal values. Laguna Indian protagonist Tayo’s journey of spiritual healing is presented to the mainstream as a process of transformation from “un(wanted)-American” to a “Native American.” To present her agenda of indigenous cultural sovereignty in a manner more acceptable to white American readers, Silko mobilizes some modernist literary conventions such as bildungsroman and grail romance. Ceremony’s ingenious integration of a story of Indian tribal identity formation into the familiar narrative conventions of US Cold War national self-fashioning and liberal individualism allows Silko to explore the possibility that Native American homeland can coexist and even to some extant, share communal responsibility with the white America.