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American Fiction Studies


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 연3회
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1738-5784
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 : 호손연구(~2002) → 호손과 미국소설 연구(2003~) → 미국소설(2007~)
논문제목
수록 범위 : 25권 1호 (2018)

『술라』에 나타난 혐오와 자아실현

공명수 ( Myung Su Kong )
미국소설학회|미국소설  25권 1호, 2018 pp. 5-23 ( 총 19 pages)
5,900
초록보기
This paper aims at approaching the relations between the disgust and the self-realization of Sula and Nel, analysing the trauma of hatred and disgust based on self-disgust. Circumscribed from childhood by blacks and white communities, Sula and Nel learn to protect themselves by acting in aggressive and independent ways. Sula insults the women by sleeping with their husbands once and discarding them, and her lack of empathy makes her stir the feelings of intense revulsion when she sleeps with Jude. Unfortunately, Jude’s abandonment reactivates self-disgust’s trauma Nel felt as a child on the train with her mother. But, unlike Sula, Nel sleeps with her children for their comfort and for hers to keep away from her self-disgust. Sula’s aggressive sexuality which lies in this attraction-repulsion dynamic does not lead to healing, while Nel’s independent self-realization ends up overcoming self-disgust. Accordingly Sula says that this lack of stable identity perpetuates the cycle of hatred and disgust.

이상적 공동체를 향하여 ―옥타비아 버틀러의 『어린 새』

권지은 ( Jieun Kwon )
미국소설학회|미국소설  25권 1호, 2018 pp. 25-47 ( 총 23 pages)
6,300
초록보기
This paper examines the political significance of communal relationship depicted in Octavia Butler’s Fledgling. By imagining various forms of communal relationship as an alternative to individualistic solution, the novel goes against the grain of individualism as a national tenet throughout American literature and offers a new way of envisioning the national community. In doing so, Butler tries to show that individualism is not an end in itself as many novels have claimed, but rather an effective instrument to successfully make an collective community. By showing that Shori’s individual ability as an American Adam is an quintessential element in nurturing communities and making them thrive, the novel indicates that individual values and communal ideals can be complementary and “symbiotic” to each other.

“And then there was history”: Traveling Time in Octavia Butler’s Kindred

( Min-jung Kim )
미국소설학회|미국소설  25권 1호, 2018 pp. 49-75 ( 총 27 pages)
6,700
초록보기
Critical evaluations on Octavia Butler’s most recognized fiction Kindred (1979) have accumulated at an incredible pace over the years, the novel duly endorsed as the author’s provocative engagement with race through her innovative morphing of different literary traditions and genres. In particular, much of the readings that trace the trajectory of the African American female protagonist Dana Franklin’s embodied time travels to the antebellum South rightly profess that the narrative device of time travel enables both the protagonist and her readers a direct encounter with American slavery, and the importance of historical knowledge and connection to the past in this process. In its defiance of some reified understanding of history, time travel can be revisionist than conservative. With the fascinating challenge of transforming history, time travel not only prompts an understanding of oneself in the continuum of others in the past, present, and future, but opens up history as processual and as a source of reproduction. In this essay, I concentrate on the significant import of time travel in Kindred, how Butler inserts it not simply as an apparatus or mechanism for temporal and spatial movement that pushes the plot and action, but offers it up as a radical narrative possibility as well as unattainability. In Kindred, there is no technological explication for the absence of mediation between the past and the present. I explore how the compelling potential of time travel, the possibility of “gambling against history,” is mustered up and expelled at the same time, specifically by tracing Dana’s perception and interaction with her slaveholding white male ancestor Rufus Weylin, and more prominently, her fraught relationship to her black maternal ancestor Alice Greenwood.

Beyond “normal signs of vulnerability”: A Different Mode of Relationality in Toni Morrison’s Sula

( Suhyun Kim )
미국소설학회|미국소설  25권 1호, 2018 pp. 77-95 ( 총 19 pages)
5,900
초록보기
In her second novel Sula (1973), Toni Morrison explores possibilities for a new black female subjectivity through her characterization of Sula. In general, scholars have analyzed Sula as transgressive because she seems to lead an independent, monadic life, unconcerned of and disconnected from the ways of the community―free, but dangerously free. However, Sula is a deeply ambivalent figure, who is free and unmindful of the community, and yet profoundly lonely and defensive at the same time. This ambivalence of Sula needs more attention, and accordingly, I employ Judith Butler’s notions of vulnerability and grief in analyzing her character. These concepts can shed a new light upon Sula’s seeming solipsism and offer a new interpretation for her as an ambivalent character who, even as a seemingly monadic individual, in fact exists in relation with others, by recognizing her and others’ vulnerability and taking responsibility for the relationality between herself and others. Specifically, Sula’s loss of a consistent sense of self as a result of her accidental killing of Chicken Little is discussed as what reveals Sula’s vulnerability and precariousness. By articulating the vulnerability of Sula which may not be easily recognizable, this paper examines how Morrison problematizes the limited and homogenized perspective in which a figure like Sula is excluded and dehumanized into a life that is not worth grieving for.

Flaneur and Flanerie in Harlem: Toni Morrison’s Jazz

( Yoonjeong Kim )
미국소설학회|미국소설  25권 1호, 2018 pp. 97-129 ( 총 33 pages)
7,300
초록보기
Underpinned by the assumption that the city was crowded with black immigrants from the South in the 1920s, this essay makes use of Benjamin’s concept of the flaneur to explore how the characters in Jazz can be reinvented as flaneur, extending the original concept of the flaneur to the previously neglected groups of people, namely, the black immigrants. To that end, I scrutinize what Benjamin delineates about the concept of the flaneur in The Arcades Project, and how the previous studies by Wilson and Parsons extend it, wherein I elicit the points that even these studies are not pertinent to racial diversity such as African American. Subsequently, focusing on aspects interspersed throughout the novel, I investigate how the black characters in Jazz are reintroduced as the flaneur. This paper concludes with “going back to in place.” The City, which used to be an observer watching and predicting what would happen to the characters, admits its position as a mere onlooker whereas the characters, Violet and Joe, become as a moving observer with their own individuality to stroll and watch the City. This essay, ultimately, aims to situate Toni Morrison’s Jazz on the trajectory of literary figure of flaneur.

Rewriting Mark Twain, Recovering (Un)hegemonic Black Voices: Nancy Rawles’s My Jim

( Sodam Choi )
미국소설학회|미국소설  25권 1호, 2018 pp. 131-153 ( 총 23 pages)
6,300
초록보기
Mark Twain scholarship has extensively discussed race from the (failed) inter-racial friendship between Huck and Jim to racial injustice to white privileges since the publication of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in 1884. Although it is often neglected by Twain scholars, I argue that Twain’s narratological tactic of intentionally avoiding direct references to legal and political issues of the antebellum South with regards to slave capital and the slave trade is to be under criticism. The black voice, whether it is Jim or other almost non-existent black characters, is too often unseen and unheard in his story. Twain’s controversial rendition of Jim and his neglect of other black voices is thus problematic, especially when they are once created within the story. While he focuses more critically on his socio-cultural sketch of the antebellum South through the lens of a naive young white narrator, Twain almost forgets that he once created one interesting black character, Jim, only showing him randomly to the readers during Huck’s journey on the Mississippi. As a critical response to Twain’s neglect, Nancy Rawles imaginatively rewrites Jim’s story and critically responds to Twain’s fragmentary portrayal of Jim and other black characters in her 2005 novel, My Jim. Taking the form of Jim’s wife’s telling her life to her granddaughter, Rawles de-hegemonizes the single voice of Huckleberry Finn and has once the marginalized African American (female) characters speak out their stories. In doing so, Rawles attempts to historicize African American slave history from the perspective of those who survived slavery without running away.

Heterotopia as a Usable Concept in Literary Studies: A Study of Crane’s Maggie: A Girl of the Streets

( Eunju Hwang )
미국소설학회|미국소설  25권 1호, 2018 pp. 155-177 ( 총 23 pages)
6,300
초록보기
This essay attempts to redefine Michel Foucault’s notion of heterotopia as a usable concept in literary studies, neither too broad nor too exclusive. Based on Foucault’s own propositions, this essay stresses two major characteristics of the notion. First, heterotopias are real space. Second, heterotopias exist in relation with other sites. When the notion is used in a literary analysis, it should focus on the relationship between heterotopic space in reality and literature as its representation. Crane’s Maggie: The Girl of the Streets showcases a use of the concept. Through Maggie: The Girl of the Streets, Crane criticizes the middle-class reformers whose architectural determinism refuses to face the real problem of the tenements: poverty. He also exposes the falsity of the middle-class morality that, as reformers believed, would save the tenement from crime, disease, and moral depravity. Maggie’s mother’s blind adoption of the middle-class sexual morality that is unfit to the reality of the tenement drives Maggie to death. Crane’s (re)creation of the tenement as a parody of the middle-class morality at stake shows how the use of heterotopia as a notion should become a starting point of discussion, not its telos.

The Suspension of Certainty: Ondaatje’s Coming Through Slaughter and the Philosophy of Schizophrenia

( Patricia George )
미국소설학회|미국소설  25권 1호, 2018 pp. 179-201 ( 총 23 pages)
6,300
초록보기
Sri-Lankan Canadian writer Michael Ondaatje is well known for exploring the possibilities of suspended states and spaces between absolutes in both his poetry and prose work. This paper aims to analyze such themes in Ondaatje’s first (and often overlooked) novel Coming Through Slaughter (1976) as they are presented through the medium of jazz music and the symptoms of “Dementia Praecox. Paranoid Type” (133). Previous scholarship regarding this novel has been primarily concerned with the tragic implications of the uncertainty that seems inseparable from states of suspension, but I suggest a reconsideration from the perspective of Deleuze and Guattari’s philosophy of schizophrenia. The paper argues that this novel’s formal and thematic insistent destruction of frames is not only consistent with the concepts of assemblages and the body-without-organs as described by Deleuze and Guattari, but also productively engages in negative capability. Read in this way, Coming Through Slaughter offers valuable insight into the evolving cultural context of mental health issues in North America.
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