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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

미국소설검색

American Fiction Studies


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 연3회
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1738-5784
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 : 호손연구(~2002) → 호손과 미국소설 연구(2003~) → 미국소설(2007~)
논문제목
수록 범위 : 3권 0호 (1996)

The Blithedale Romance : 이상향의 실패가 주는 의미

김용수(Young Soo Kim)
미국소설학회|미국소설  3권 0호, 1996 pp. 3-24 ( 총 32 pages)
7,200
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The Blithedale Romance, based on Nathaniel Hawthorne`s personal experiences in Brook Farm, is the author`s only work that uses the first-person narrator and deals with his contemporary issues. It has rather been considered literarily inferior among his works largely due to its problems in narrator, plot, ending and so on. But this romance is lively studied and re-evaluated nowadays, perhaps because modern readers and critics find a kind of typological similarities between the fervor for reform in the 19th century America and that in the present age now prevailing over the world. What attracts our attention here is that this romance suggests us not a positive but a negative view on man`s artificial attempts for reform. The early nineteenth century America saw a lot of transcendental optimists who believed that man can control his own fate with his will and build an ideal society through self-discipline and brotherly love. But Hawthorne`s views on reform and reformers were skeptic and negative. He was surrounded by transcendentalists including Emerson, Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, and his sister-in-law Elizabeth Peabody. While these were confident and optimistic about man`s future, he could not believe that real improvement would be possible for men. His experiences in Brook Farm confirmed him in this belief when he realized that the ideal of performing both physical and spiritual work simultaneously was merely a dream under the harsh reality that hard life by day left him little time to improve himself as an artist. He thought that real betterment for man and society cannot be achieved as long as man`s nature remains unchanged, and this idea, prevalent in this romance, appears in the form that the tragic failure of Blithedale is largely due to main characters` innate flaws. Coverdale, an aloof narrator and observer, fails in both and life as he lacks human warmth in observing others and fair understanding of the nature of reform and its participants including himself. Zenobia, a passionate feminist, ends in her tragic death when her public cause is engulfed by her private feeling for a man. Hollingsworth, though a philanthropist with will and zeal for reform, cannot achieve his goal of establishing an institute for reforming criminals a he commits n unpardonable sin of violating human heart. All these main characters fail in achieving their ideal goals because, though their community is ostensibly baste love and mutual sympathy, they cannot grasp the nature of their selves. Thus, this romance can be reed as a touchstone for modern reformers who are eager for the improvement of man gird society but sometimes forget what man`s true nature is.

" The Minister`s Black Veil " : 죽음의 모호성

박영의(Young Ui Park)
미국소설학회|미국소설  3권 0호, 1996 pp. 35-61 ( 총 27 pages)
6,700
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"The Minister`s Black Veil"에 둥장하는 Hooper목사의 얼굴에 드리워진 검은 두건이 목사가 숨기고 있는 어떤 죄를 상징한다는 데는 비평가들 사이에 큰 이견이 없으나, 그가 숨기고 있는 죄가 과연 무엇이냐는데 대해선 아직 만족스러운 해답이 나오지 않고 있다. 특히 H. J. Lang은 Hooper목사의 검은 두건 사건에 있어서 문제의 핵심은 Hooper목사가 숨기고 있는 죄 자체 보다 목사의 지나치게 예민한 성격에 있다고 주장하고 있으나, 필자의 주장은 이사건의 근본문제는 Hooper목사의 지나치게 예민한 성격에 있는 것이 아니라, 그들 스스로 하나님애 의해 택함을 받았다고 자부하고 있는 청교도들의 교만한 믿음과 잘못된 교리에 있다는 것이다. 바꾸어 말하면, Hooper목사의 지나친 과민한 성격은 문제의 결과이지 문제의 원인이 아니라는 것이며, 따라서 Hooper목사의 검은 두사건의 문제를 해결하기 위해서는 그 당시 청교도들의 예정론과 구원론을 철저히 연구할 필요가 있다는 것이 본 논문의 핵심이다.

Hawthorne 과 Melville 의 ' 이중적 글쓰기' : " Hawthorne and His Mosses " 를 중심으로

손영림
미국소설학회|미국소설  3권 0호, 1996 pp. 62-82 ( 총 21 pages)
6,100
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The problem of isolation of the American artists is well-known to the students of American literature. Since the colonial period, American writers have found themselves at odds with the demands of the increasingly practical, materialistic society and have found their serious art unsupported by the general reader. As a result, they were motivated to develop a particular tradition of experimental writing, namely, to exploit the mode of symbolic indirection to communicate secret message to unsympathetic audience. The techniques of concealment allowed them to communicate and conceal, to allude dark vision to the underground reader and also to disguise it from the common reader. This art of deception is the very skill Melville admires in Hawthorne, Shakespeare and $quot;other masters of the great Art of Telling the Truth$quot; in his $quot;Hawthorne and His Mosses$quot;(1850), review of Hawthorne`s Mosses Pram an Old Mure (1846), and at the same time Melville himself practices in his most important works. In the review Melville says that the world is mistaken in deeming Hawthorne only a $quot;pleasant,$quot; $quot;sweet,$quot; $quot;gentle,$quot; $quot;harmless$quot; writer $quot;who means no meaning,$quot; not seeing $quot;blackness in Hawthorne.$quot; Hawthorne must hide $quot;the great power of blackness$quot; because $quot;in this world of lies$quot; $quot;it were all but madness for any good man, in his own proper character, to utter, or even hint of them [terrifically true things].$quot; They $quot;are directly calculated to deceive--egregioiusly deceive-- the superficial skimmer of pages$quot; and insinuated only to the $quot;eagle-eyed reader$quot;. Melville`s portrait of Hawthorne in $quot;Hawthorne and His Mosses$quot; is a self-portrait and a general portrait of the artist in America also. And the $quot;masters of the great Art of Telling the Truth$quot; including Hawthorne and Hawthorne hope that readers will be attentive enough to detect the underneath text, unearth it and bring it to light.

Hawthorne 의 작품에 나타난 윤리적 상상력

윤영식
미국소설학회|미국소설  3권 0호, 1996 pp. 83-99 ( 총 17 pages)
5,700
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Nathaniel Hawthorne infused moral messages into most of his works. He was so serious-minded and made it a rule to find moral meanings in even the minutiae of his world. Hawthorne also had a powerful insight into the human psychology, and his fiction remains still valuable chiefly because of its understanding of the essential truths of the human heart. Hawthorne`s Calvinism, which prescribes the irony of his best writings, is rooted in Calvin`s Institutes of the Christian Religion, the only systematic theology of the Reformation. Whether Hawthorne had read the Institutes or not is unimportant what is important is that Calvin`s major doctrines were deep-rooted in him through his inheritance, his obsession with New England`s Puritan history, his eager reading of the lives and sermons of Puritan clergymen, and his childhood churchgoing. Hawthorne needed a set of theological concepts which might serve him as the framework for his allegorical and symbolic presentation of moral themes. Such a set of concepts, he found in the Puritan theology. This is not to say that he blindly accepted the entire structure of the Puritan theology and Puritan polity. What was Hawthorne`s literary material was the moral view of life of his Calvinistic ancestors in New England, and his tales are almost always allegories with morals attached. The theme of his major works is not sin itself as a theological problem, but rather the psychological effect of the conviction of sin on the lives of his Puritan ancestors in the seventeenth century. He used his art to reveal rather than to resolve the dilemma of human destiny. A true Calvinist seeks conviction of sin as a preparation for a promised salvation, while Hawthorne sees it as an admission to the brotherhood of man. In other words, he looked on man`s evil as the one universal bond of humanity. One of his major subjects was the problem of moral growth. Hawthorne believed that moral growth could not happen without sin and suffering, so he never accepted that sin is automatically redeemable or redemptive. After the horrible human cost of sin, agony, and death, some degree of spiritual purgation and reestablishment of the original bond of humanity is fulfilled. Hawthorne`s God was a humane, paternal, benignly providential God, interested in the earthly happiness of His children. While in the Bible the Unpardonable Sin is to blaspheme against the Holy Spirit, it is according to Hawthorns a want of love and lack of reverence for the Human Soul. He also writes about the mesmerism in The American Notebooks as follows: The exercise of such a mesmeric power is fundamentally wrong because it violates the sacredness of personality. Only a person utterly lacking in love and reverence for the Human Soul, in whom the intellect has been overdeveloped and the emotional nature has undergone atrophy, would be capable of thus preying upon a susceptible nature. In this $quot;separation of the intellect form the heart$quot; and the Hawthorne consequent drying up of human sympathies, Hawthorne finds the Unpardonable Sin. In conclusion, Hawthorne used his `moral imagination` as the literary framework for his moral themes in writing his works

아이러니 작가로서의 Hawthorne 의 문학이론

이기정(Ki Jeong Lee)
미국소설학회|미국소설  3권 0호, 1996 pp. 100-125 ( 총 26 pages)
6,600
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There are various literary techniques which writers n use skilfully in creating their fictional world in order to present their purpose effectively. Especially in Hawthorne`s works, irony is one of the most important literary devices, for he conveys indirectly a certain thought or moral instruction to readers while dissimulating his intention consciously or unconsciously. Therefore Hawthorne, who has been known as a representative writer in the 19th century`s American Romanticism, is a remarkable ironist. Hawthorne`s ironic view has close relation to his background and contemporary socio-cultural circumstances. He had dualistic emotions, at once proud and shameful of his Puritan ancestor`s good deeds and religious persecution of Quakerism. Some of his contemporaries blamed him and other romantists for expressing fanciful and unpractical things. Moreover, Hawthorns, penetrated the gap between ideal theory and practical performance of his contemporary transcendentalists and reformers. He observed two faces, good and evil. It is these circumstances that make Hawthorne`s literary view as an ironist. Though he did not leave a systematic theory of art, Hawthorne expressed his ironic view in his several prefaces, Dwhich may be regarded as his literary theory on the technique of irony. In order to show what is his literary theory on ironies concretely represented in the literary works, and then to gain a deeper insight into, and a wider perspective of his literature, this study is to examine the prefaces of Hawthorne`s, chiefly focusing on $quot;The Custom-House,$quot; divided itself into three main parts: Ironists and Readers, Hawthorne`s Own Experiences and Ironic Vision, and Romance Theory and Irony.

죄와 구원 : The Scarlet Letter , The Power and the Glory , A Month of Sundays 에서

장병길
미국소설학회|미국소설  3권 0호, 1996 pp. 126-157 ( 총 32 pages)
7,200
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The Scarlet Letter(1850), The Power and the Glory(1940), and A Month of Sundays(1975) have some similarities in their protagonists and themes. Arhur Dimmesdale, Tom Marshfield and the whisky-priest are Protestant ministers and a Catholic priest, respectively. Two of them beget illegitimate daughters, Pearl and Brigitta, and Marshfield commits several adulteries. Their sins are greater than those of the common people. Is it possible that their sins are forgiven? John Updike published Roger`s Version(1986) and S(1988) successively after his A Month of Sundcays and these three novels are called the Scarlet Letter Trilogy: in which Roger Lambert parodies Roger Chillingworth, Tom Marshfield, Artlmr Dimmesdale, and Sarah Hester Prynne. It may be unreasonable to compare The Power and the Glory with The Scarlet Letter, but Dimmesdale and the whisky-priest have much in common in that they become humble, penitential and gain courage after recognizing their sins. In A Month of Sundays we meet Professor Chillingworth, Marshifield`s father-in-law and Ms Prynne, owner of the motel in the desert, which remind us that it is a parody of The Scarlet Letter, though there are many dissimilarities in the views on sex, religion and the way of communication. Dimmesdale becomes a misanthrope, the whisky-priest suffers from knowing that people hide him even though they are held in hostage, and Marshfield wants to emphasis through the theme of adultery that flesh should not be neglected, for soul and flesh are one. But they are given salvation after seven years of torment, several months of fugitive life, and a month of searching for reconciliation in the desert. As reviewed in the above, this paper is organized from the viewpoint of comparative literature horizontally and vertically, that is, the comparison of their themes and the relationship of their influence.

Updike 의 작품에 나타난 Hawthorne 신화

정은주
미국소설학회|미국소설  3권 0호, 1996 pp. 158-180 ( 총 23 pages)
6,300
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Updike`s trilogy, that is, A Month of Sundays, Roger`s Version, S. parodies Hawthorne`s The Scarlet Letter. It does not mean a direct reflection but a transformation of Hawthorne`s masterpiece. Updike joins Hawthorne in investigating the complex variables among sex, sin, and salva0tion and the trilogy is as much a contemporary musing on Hawthorne`s themes as an adaptation of The Scarlet Letter. So, rejecting Hawthorne`s distinction between the corrupt material and the pure spiritual, Updike and his characters struggle toward a unity of the extremes even at the cost of sexual transgression. His acceptance of body and soul follows Karl Barth. A Month of Sundays is Dimmesdale`s Version of The Scarlet Letter. In casting Marshfield as Dimmesdale, Updike focuses upon the verbal performance of the minster. Possessing the $quot;Tongue of Flame,$quot; Dimmesdale is a gifted speaker preaching to the people of Boston. Updike`s Marshfield is equally adept with language. Through his diary he displays his verbal powers. But Marshfield`s sermon differs from Dimmesdale. Parodic and humorous, Marshfield delivers a comic performance filled with wordplay and silly puns. Whereas Dimmesdale`s speech emphasizes concealment, Marshfield, Updike attempts to revise America`s understanding of Christianity. Roger`s Version is Chillingworth`s Version. Roger Lambent is a contemporary Roger Chillingworth who is an equally bookish doctor of divinity like Chillingworth. Much as The Scarlet Letter focuses itself upon the act of seeing, Updike appropriates Hawthorne`s concern by making Roger`s Version a discourse on visualization. Like Chillingworth, Roger Lambent is a voyeur. He likes to see into and manipulate the lives of others through the eyes of others. Through manipulation, he attempts to inject new energy into his life. S. is Nester`s Version. It is the epistolary novel and concern with the American Experiment of dessent, separation, and struggle to rebuild the world. In retelling Nester`s story, Updike pays attention to the thought of shedding skins, transforming the self. Like this, though Updike`s Trilogy is based upon Hawthorne`s The Scarlet Letter, there are some differences between them. First, Updike`s trilogy ends with not tragedy but comedy because his characters resist the gloom. Second, Updike reworks Hawthorne`s romance into realism. Unlike Hawthorne, Updike create realistic characters and settings. Third, Updike is to alter the traditional body and soul division in Hawthorne through his works. So he links body and soul together. Anyway his acquistion from Hawthorne`s work is evident in his trilogy but he transforms The Scarlet Letter into the contemporary.

새로운 질서 , 과학의 양면성 < 라파치니 박사의 딸 > 을 중심으로

정혜옥
미국소설학회|미국소설  3권 0호, 1996 pp. 181-204 ( 총 24 pages)
6,400
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This article is to examine the dual effects of empirical science. In America of nineteenth-century, science was welcomed eagerly as a new powerful authority to replace religious authority, which was refused by the sceptic people toward traditional order. Though Hawthorne is ambivalent and uneasy about the dominant influence of religion, he can not accept science as a new order comfortably. Unlike the most of the people in his age, he foresees the dangers of science and the confusion of scientists, whose power is much more practical and stronger than that of traditional authorities. The painful isolation and suffering of the characters in Hawthorne`s scientific tales demonstrates his penetrating awareness of the potential dangers of science. In $quot;Rappaccini`s daughter$quot; appaccini tries to understand existence in terms of scientific datas collected by the observation with senses. Empirical science, however, is not enough to perceive human being because it cannot cover the man as a spiritual being. Dr. Rappaccini uses the scientific knowledge as his instrument to realize his own subjective vision, not as the way to prove a fact empirically. With the knowledge of nature, he tries to overcome the inherent imperfection and weakness of man and to achieve the power of creator, which is definitely beyond the means of one of the creatures, a man. Rappaccini emplys her daughter, Beatrice, as his vehicle by which he thinks he can attain spiritual perfection. On the other hand, he believes that he can have his daughter protect from anybody. However, it is ironical that the power to ensure the goal is achieved by means of lethal poison to every living thing. Due to the power given to her, Beatrice is absolutely isolated from everybody. She cannot even get in touch with her own father, Rappaccini and her lover, Giovanni. The poison which makes her omnipotently powerful paradoxically gets herself victimized. Rappaccini, his rival Baglioni, and an another victim as well as a vehicle of the conflicts of the two scholars, Giovanni, sacrifice Beatrice by reason that the three men intend to fix her in their own way. In this tale Hawthorne explores the authority of empirical science and concludes the science is inadequate for explaining existence. And also he warns the serious dangers of science, which gives us not only the power to get over the limits of man but demands the high price that may be equal to the sacrifice of our whole life.
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