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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

미국소설검색

American Fiction Studies


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 연3회
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1738-5784
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 : 호손연구(~2002) → 호손과 미국소설 연구(2003~) → 미국소설(2007~)
논문제목
수록 범위 : 5권 0호 (1998)

The Scarlet Letter : 17 세기 New England 역사 다시 쓰기

민진영(Jin Young Min)
미국소설학회|미국소설  5권 0호, 1998 pp. 5-30 ( 총 26 pages)
6,600
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In The Scarlet Letter, Hawthorne examines the myth of the 17th century New England Fathers which was prevalent in the mid-19th century America. He shows that New England Fathers had embraced the noble spiritual ideal of constructing the happiest ideal community and endeavored to realize such an ideal through sincere enthusiasm and moral sensitivity. At the same time, he also points out that they had defined any difference from their stereotype to be the `other` that needed to be persecuted and oppressed natural human instincts in the process, with the tragic consequence being unhealthy psychological condition and rigid life without creative energy in its members. Through this, Hawthorne emphasizes the fact that the ancestors of the early 17th century were neither the `visible saints` free from corrupted experience that they were hoping to be nor the progressive men who valued each individual`s freedom and equal rights. Seen in this light, despite the fact that it is only a fictional novel, The Scarlet Letter finds its significance as a sort of revisionary history in having attempted to rewrite the American past in a more whole form by suggesting the dark underside of the romantic History of the time that mythified American past in a splendid but one-sided form.

The Blithedale Romance 에 대한 페미니즘적 접근

이은숙(Eun Sook Lee)
미국소설학회|미국소설  5권 0호, 1998 pp. 31-56 ( 총 26 pages)
6,600
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The purpose of this study is to read and to re-evaluate The Blithedale Romance of Nathaniel Hawthorne, a representative of prose in the 19th century America, from a feministic view. The Western society has found its order on Christianity. It is believed that `Original Sin` of disobedience to God in the garden of Eden has made man suffer and Eve is the worse sinner than Adam. This belief affects the view on women even today and fortifies Sexism by help of Patriarchy; this is reflected on not only the works of Hawthorne but the criticism on his works. Hawthorne uses the society of Blithedale as a symbolic place for the Patriarchal society. Though not appearing as a main character, Old Moodie resides as a vital character since he has the key to decide Zenobia`s and Priscilla`s future, and he is as powerful as father-God in the Patriarchal society. When he and his successor, Hollingsworth, forsake Zenobia, she takes it as a complete denial from fatherhood. Even Coverdale confesses his love for Priscilla at the end. This last confession shows his submission to the Patriarchal authority because he has been in love with Zenobia all along but gives her up and follows Old Moodie`s and Hollingsworth`s examples. They believe that a submissive woman like Priscilla is loved as an ideal for a wife but a strong woman like Zenobia is dangerous and should be eliminated. Coverdale, like Theodore of `Zenobia`s Legend,` stands for the man who fears what is under the veil, fails $quot;to resist the doubt$quot;, and loses it forever. In The Blithedale Romance Hawthorne tries to show us, though in an indirect way, men`s self-contradicting attitude toward women in the Patriarchal society. He, therefore, might be the writer predicting the feministic movement in the 20th century, which tries to point out unjust views and wrongful behaviors toward women.

Melville 의 " The Bell - Tower " 에 나타난 Hawthorne 의 우화적 양식

이인숙(In Soon Lee)
미국소설학회|미국소설  5권 0호, 1998 pp. 57-75 ( 총 19 pages)
5,900
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Hawthorne and Melville are quite unlike in temperament and style, both personal and literary. But there is similarity between them in that they attempted to go beyond surface reality to a truth below the surface, a truth of the human heart. Melville was moved and fascinated by the blackness in Hawthorne and commended him for his originality. Melville thought that Hawthorne was an unimitating and an inimitable author and would be sure to write like an American, not like an Englishman nor a Frenchman. While Hawthorne began his career with a period of self-training and theorizing, Melville came to write accidentally by recording his experiences. In writing his own novels, very often he borrowed and quoted passages from others, merging and recreating them into his own works. Melville`s $quot;The Bell-Tower$quot; is not an exception in that it was also the work woven from various sources. Regarding allegorical modes, Melville was familiar with most of the great allegories long before he met Hawthorne. But it is very probable that Melville`s encounter with $quot;Hawthorne`s Mosses$quot; in 1850 and his relationship with Hawthorne thereafter prompted him to try further experiments with allegory. It is $quot;The Bell-Tawer$quot; that is Melville`s most overt attempt at allegory in the Hawthornean manner. In $quot;The Bell-Tower$quot; he draws several motifs directly from Hawthorne in writing his own allegory on creativity and the role of the artist. Furthermore, there is substantial literary evidence to indicate that $quot;The Bell-Tower$quot; is an ironic variation of $quot;The Artist of the Beautiful.$quot; More concretely, Bannadonna, the hero of $quot;The Bell-Tower$quot;, is the reverse image of Owen, the hero of $quot;The Artist of the Beautiful$quot;. The ingenious artisans in $quot;The Artist of the Beautiful$quot; and $quot;The Bell-Tower$quot; sense their own superiority to society and isolate themselves from it, while seeking to endow a mechanical device with life-like attributes. But there is a striking difference between the two. Although both succeed in their attempt, Hawthorne`s artisan learns to accept his artifact as merely a man-made symbol of God-given beauty, whereas Bannadonna`s overweening pride in his almost impious creation ultimately brings about his death. In fashioning Talus, the mechanical man of $quot;Bell-Tower,$quot; Melville seemed obviously inspired by $quot;The Minotaur$quot; appearing in Tanglwood Tales, Hawthorne`s collection of Greek myths recreated for children. Tales of $quot;The Bell-Tower$quot; resembles that of $quot;The Minotaur$quot; in various ways. Today it is said that the $quot;The Bell-Tower$quot; survives not because of that last allegorical paragraph, nor because of the qualities the editor found in the story as a whole, but in spite of them. That is, we read it because we are moved in a complex way by Bannadonna, seized by the vision of a multi-dimensional symbol in it. But more than anything else, $quot;The Bell-Tower$quot; is noticeable in that it strongly suggests that Moby-Dick and Melville`s other major works after that were influenced by Hawthorne`s allegorical vision.

" The Minister`s Black Veil " 에 나타난 배일의 의미 - 묵시록적 비전을 중심으로 -

장인식(Ein Sik Chang)
미국소설학회|미국소설  5권 0호, 1998 pp. 77-93 ( 총 17 pages)
5,700
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It has been said that Nathaniel Hawthorne`s works are very ambiguous. His ambiguity plays twofold roles in his works: putting away false notions about the truth, and showing the limitation of the finite men. In this respect, his ambiguity is related with apocalyptic vision. The purpose of this thesis is to find the meaning of Mr. Hooper`s veil showing Hawthorne`s apocalyptic vision. Mr. Hooper and his veil have received various interpretations by critics. The veil itself, however, is the symbol of apocalypse in apocalyptic sense. Typologically, there are three veils in the Bible exemplifying Mr. Hooper`s veil-the veil of Moses, the veil of the tabernacles, the metaphoric veil that hangs over the people`s hearts-which mean separation between a holy one and ordinary things. Mr. Hooper`s veil has the same role in this work. Once he dons the veil, the people are alienated, not only from him but also from God. Mr. Hooper`s black veil has twofold meanings, that is, a symbol of his proud adherence to a destructive idea putting too much emphasis on the original sin, and a symbol of apocalypse in that the word $quot;apocalypse$quot; means, etymologically, $quot;unveiling.$quot; Hawthorne`s apocalyptic vision is clearly shown in Hooper`s firm belief that there will be an imminent revelation putting the veil away through Jesus` second coming.

상업사회와 작가 - The House of the Seven Gables 을 중심으로 -

정혜옥(Hae Ok Chung)
미국소설학회|미국소설  5권 0호, 1998 pp. 95-120 ( 총 26 pages)
6,600
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When Hawthorne finished The Scarlet Letter, he was uncomfortable with the starkness of his own tragic vision in the novel. What he bothered was that the novel was monotonous as well as too stern and sombre. So he wanted to pour some genial sunshine into his second novel to secure a larger audience. Despite the moderate success of The Scarlet Letter, he was still pressed hard financially. Hawthorne wanted to share popular preference for fiction combining $quot;sunshine and shadow,$quot; for he could not ignore the world`s wish everything should turn out well at the end. The House of the Seven Gables reveals Hawthorne`s conflicts between his craving for money and fame and his desire to be a great writer of telling the a truth of human heart more clearly than any of his other works. As he usually does in his works, Hawthorne expresses his wishes and dilemmas through the characters in the novel. Hepzibah, the old maid who opens a cent-shop in the corner of the house after her long seclusion, shows how difficult it is for one the adjust to the exchange process and the relation of the buyer and the seller. Hawthorne probably expects good luck that he can deal with the public as pleasantly and efficiently as Phoebe does. Unfortunately he recognizes it is not possible for him to do like Phobe. Through Judge Jaffrey Pynchoen, a hypocrite, Hawthorne demonstrates a character who thoroughly appreciates the comerciality of genial countenance. The writer finds a candidate for an artist in Holgrave, a daguerreotypist and member of Maules, who lodges in the house of the seven gables. Holgrave tries to bring out the truth people cannot notice in the daily life. However, the truth Holgrave catches cannot be presented to the public, because they do not like to see nor admit it. Hawthorne attempts to resolve his dilemma by reconciling Maules and Pyncheons that will attract a popular audience. He arranges the marriage of Holgrave and Phoebe after she inherits a large sum of money, a result of the sudden death of Jaffrey and his son. However, the prosperous ending has been criticisized on account that the reconciliation of Maine and Pyncheon is not convincing and the inheritance of the Judge`s money upon the the surviving characters is the evils of inheritance. The comic resolution prepart for the public, Hawthorne felt, was violating the logic of his tale and sacrificing of the truth of human heart.

The Blithedale Romance 에 나타난 유토피아적 개혁의 실패

채규태(Kye Tae Chai)
미국소설학회|미국소설  5권 0호, 1998 pp. 121-137 ( 총 17 pages)
5,700
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The Blithedale Romance is an imaginative treatment of reform issues raised at Brook Farm. When he participated in the Farm, Hawthorne found that he was unfit to work there and left after six months. Throughout the novel he describes from a critical viewpoint the fictional community of Blithedale which is based on the Farm. He suggests that the reformers` experiment in communal living was to be unsuccessful from the start. The reasons may be summarized as the following three. First of all, the reformers set to constructing an ideal community only with heroism, not having any detailed plan. For a utopia to come, they throw off all the established customs and institutions. Secondly, contrary to their motto, Blithedalers are not rid of selfish motives. The society of cooperation they desired turns into a world of rivalry and enmity. The millenium of love that the utopians dreamt at the outset comes true ironically as a society of free love. Lastly, as reformers they ought to do hard work which the Blithedale farmers are doing in everyday life. However, the strain of hard work proves unbearable to them. As a natural consequence, Blithedale falls into a failed utopian community.

The House of the Seven Gables 에 나타난 Hawthorne 의 낙관주의 - 빛의 아가씨 Phoebe 를 중심으로 -

천연희(Yeon Hee Cheon)
미국소설학회|미국소설  5권 0호, 1998 pp. 139-161 ( 총 23 pages)
6,300
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Hawthorne`s The House of the Seven Gables sheds hopeful light because it shows sympathy in humanity and community. Hawthorne believes that the prospects for human happiness can improve, despite the problems of life and evil, when persons put their sympathetic feelings towards fellow human beings into practice. And this belief is realized in The House of the Seven Gables through the $quot;lady of sunshine,$quot; Phoebe`s sympathy. Phoebe exemplifies two definitions of sympathy which deepen her relationship to human society. The first definition is in her suffering for others (Hepzibah and Clifford), which is more like sympathy as compassion. The second definition of sympathy is in the erotic love that she and Holgrave share, a love which partakes of sympathy in their mutual responses to the suffering. Through these two processes, Phoebe becomes even more fully human, and more wholesome socially and psychologically. Phoebe is real enough to bring three people, Hepzibah, Clifford and Holgrave out of the isolations and she does it by ministering sympathy which can overcome any darkness of evil. She is the antithesis of evil. So Phoebe`s story, The House of the Seven Gables, is Hawthorne`s optimistic story.

Nathaniel Hawthorne 의 ' 로맨스 ' 이론 - " The Custom - House " 를 중심으로 -

한혜경(Hye Kyung Han)
미국소설학회|미국소설  5권 0호, 1998 pp. 163-179 ( 총 17 pages)
5,700
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In $quot;The Custom-House,$quot; Nathaniel Hawthorne formulates his own specialized theory of `romance.` In the first place, he assumes a basic division of reality into the actual, on the one hand, and into the imaginary, on the other. Then, he chooses his atmospherical medium, whether it is sunlight, moonlight, ar firelight. He suggests that life seen in the sunlight is the stuff of the novel; the familiar seen in the moonlight and warmed slightly by the firelight is the stuff of the romance. And the romance looks like a kind of theater, a little removed from the ordinary life. Hawthorne believes that the romance, unlike the novel, does not have to restrict itself to the probable. But the romance, like the novel, must keep on what he calls $quot;the truth of the human heart$quot; and subject itself to artistic laws. So long as the romance is true to that truth, it has every right to mingle the marvelous and the real. For Hawthorne, moonlight is the most suitable medium for a romance-writer to get acquainted with his illusive characters. It helps to create an atmosphere that brings the reader into $quot;a neutral territory, somewhere between the real world and fairy-land.$quot; After all, Hawthorne finds that neutral ground in the distant past. When he chooses to write about seventeenth-century Boston, it is a community that recognizes no clear line between the actual and the imaginary.

" The Gentle Boy " 에 나타난 청교주의의 박해

황미진(Mi Jin Hwang)
미국소설학회|미국소설  5권 0호, 1998 pp. 181-199 ( 총 19 pages)
5,900
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Hawthorne, an heir and critic of the Puritan tradition, wrote $quot;The Gentle Boy$quot; as an imaginative atonement for the role his ancestor, William Hawthorne, played in the Puritan persecution of Quakers. To understand this work properly, therefore, we must understand the religious beliefs of New England Puritans and the background of their persecution of Quakers. The Puritans believed in the Calvinistic doctrines of total depravity and predestination of humankind. Through their beliefs in their own Election by the Covenant of Grace with God, they became overly self-righteous, regarding others as the unregenerated. They thought that the Lord had ovbiously chosen them to carry out His plans for the redemption of the world. The Puritan persecution of the Quakers in New England started when Mary Fisher and Anne Austin appeared in the Puritan community for the purpose of preaching their creed in 1656. The Quakers` theology centered upon their $quot;inner light.$quot; Thus, they completely disregarded the Puritan`s darker Calvinistic dogmas and the power of the clergy within the Church Covenants. The cruel persecution of the Quakers by the Puritans is all too well-known in our own era, but many readers are surprised that such atrocities occured in North America, all in the name of God. Puritans cut the Quakers` ears off, bored their tongues through with a hot iron and even put them to death. But subjecting the Quakers to harsh $quot;The Gentle Boy persecution, the Puritan leaders thought that they were perfoming a most unpleasant but necessary task because they believed that they were carrying out the divine will. Exqusitely structured, $quot;The Gentle Boy$quot; begins with a crying little boy whose father was hanged by the Puitans and ends with the boy`s own death. Its mood is sympathetic to the Quakers who condemned the Puritan`s harsh religious persecution.

Vision of Evil in Emerson , Hawthorne , and Melville

(Young Hee Chang)
미국소설학회|미국소설  5권 0호, 1998 pp. 201-211 ( 총 11 pages)
5,100
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