글로버메뉴 바로가기 본문 바로가기 하단메뉴 바로가기

논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

미국소설검색

American Fiction Studies


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 연3회
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1738-5784
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 : 호손연구(~2002) → 호손과 미국소설 연구(2003~) → 미국소설(2007~)
논문제목
수록 범위 : 8권 0호 (2001)

서사의 조정자 : The Scarlet Letter 의 서술자 고찰

김지원(Ji Won Kim)
미국소설학회|미국소설  8권 0호, 2001 pp. 5-20 ( 총 16 pages)
5,600
키워드보기
초록보기
Nathaniel Hawthorne`s The Scarlet letter is a revel in which the narrater invites the reader`s active involvement in the tying-malting process. Hawthorne, as narrator, allows us the freedom to choose from among possible meanings. He often makes us see how differently the sate reality may be read. In $quot;The Custom-House$quot; which stands as the portal to The Scarlet Letter, the narrator begins his sketch by mentioning that he has an $quot;autobiographical impulse.$quot; The wishes to have a talk with the narrater and develops the fullest possibilities of the idea of finding a document and becoming an editor. In The Scarlet letter, Hawthorne`s narrater invites us to participate in a free and voluntary symbol snaking. In effect, the narrator and the reader are interlocked as twin halves of one entity or event. As a novel that the act of interpretation, The Scarlet Letter contains contradictory elements, and invites diverse, even irreconcilable readings, and obliges its readers to choose between various explanations. This is meant as invitations to co-production on the pan of the reader. Finally, owing to the narrater as coordinator, The Scarlet Letter becomes a dialectical text which, instead of presenting an opinion as if it were truth, challenges its readers to discover truth on their own.
7,000
키워드보기
초록보기
The protagonist of $quot;the Young Goodman Brown$quot; defies and denies all kinds of Puritanical degradations and errors committed by the contemporary social leaders of local churches. They include the mundane deacons, earnest at church on Sunday, but idle back at their job or at home during the week; lascivious elders trifling with their domestic maids; middle-aged ladies poisoning their husbands to death to satisfy their voluptuous sexual desires; and domestic innocent maids giving birth to or aborting their babies and occasionally interring the young corpses in the garden. The same may also be said of the protagonist of Scarlet Letter, Cillingwath. Brown prides himself on the thought that he is far from such corruption and error. So he openly and clandestinely disparages such negative twits. He never realises, however, that those begaded characters are all of his own mirror ideas, a doubling echo, and his lingering second self. Chillingworth and Dimmesdale are the doctor aced patient and they should be confidential and familiar, but actually they are openly suspicious, envious, doubtful, and abhorrent of each other. There are two streams nunning through the whole of American literature: one is the tradition of interior self-centered pains and heart-rending angst, while the other is that of exterior active aggressive action.

The Blithedale Romance 의 생태학적 새로 읽기

박양근(Yang Keun Park)
미국소설학회|미국소설  8권 0호, 2001 pp. 51-67 ( 총 17 pages)
5,700
키워드보기
초록보기
The ecological novel is not a newly-developed sub-genre in American literature, but a traditional one based on the American concept of nature from the beginning of early colonization. Especially, in the mid-19th century, the conflict between civilization and nature preservation has stimulated the creative minds of writers, who tried to reveal their psychological response in their works. Hawthorne is one of the most significant but less known writes who contributed to the build-up of the American ecological literature. His ecological thought stems from mystic, psychological, and aesthetic recognition. He created a system of dual characterization in order to display undesired conflict and desired harmony between man and nature. He also employs the use of various backgrounds in order to reveal organic to the environment and milieu. The Blithedale Romance uses one protagonist (Priscilla) and three antagonists (Hollingsworth, Zenobia and Westavelt) and one narrator (Coverdale) in order to represent Hawthorne`s ambiguity towards the ideal of ecological thought. Although the writer demonstrates a retain nostalgia for the purity and humanness evidenced in nature, he coot but accept the inevitability of an indushial and commercial invasion of the countryside. These social aspects of the conflict are illustrated by Hawthorne`s characters. Priscilla`s natural disposition psychologically responds to landscape as ecosystem Coverdale, Hawthorne`s narrator and alterego, is transformed another man through telling and writing in spite of his previous urban disposition. On the other hand, Zenobia drowns herself ultimately d to her artificial passion and converted feminity. Hollingsworth is seen to became impotent because of his selfish economic ambition. Westervelt fades as a character because of his overdominant concern with mechanism Hover, all the characters represent the confused social transition from ruralism into urbanism, from country into city in the 19th century America. In doing so, Hawthorne`s characters and motifs offer themselves as the prototype of other American nature-oriented novels and romances. The Blithedale Romance, despite certain literary defects, marks a touchstone worth of reinterpretation in contemporary literature, and Hawthorne emerges as a major ecoliterary novelist building a theater on the unoccupied land between the Imaginary and the Real.

" The Real as Image " : The Marble Faun 에 나타난 실재 (實在) 의 미학적 변용

박익두(Ik Tu Park)
미국소설학회|미국소설  8권 0호, 2001 pp. 69-90 ( 총 22 pages)
6,200
키워드보기
초록보기
An aesthetic approach to Hawthorn`s The Marble Faun in the content of Postmodernism includes the thesis that Hawthorne and Postmodernists share a notion of the aestheticization of Reality, by which I mean the poetics which privileges aesthetic modes over those of logic a reason and establishes the role of aesthetic images in shaping Reality whose metaphysical foundations seem on the verge of imminent collapse. I begin by challenging the usual approach to find troth a Reality of the text in its underlying unity a totality - I am interested in showing how the story, in radically ironic ways, goes about making the very idea of Reality problematic, consistently undermining any argument for its unity and self-presence. Defined as inscrutable (indeterminate) Being, this postmodern Reality posits the unstable grounds of The marble Faum, epistemological and ontological. Hawthorne in The Marble Faum demonstrates his postmodern poetics that Reality (i. e. $quot;the truth of the human heat$quot;) cannot be graped by any metaphysical research but it can be approached only by the multiple aesthetic images derived from the impulse toward diversity. This fundamental sense of the aesthetic as a form of knowing and presenting is thus both an epistemology and an ontology transfigured in his poetics of the romance. The aesthetic transfomation of Reality in The Marble Faun specifically manifests itself in the major characters of the romance Donatello, Miriam, Hilda, Kenyon, and $quot;the model$quot; (Brother Antonio) - $quot;three$quot; of whom $quot;were artists, connected with art. In fact, the precise identities of the major characters as well as story lines remain obscure to the reader except through their diverse aesthetic images; human creations and human beings themselves are all re-creations of artistic metamorphosis through Hawthorne`s $quot;poetics of multiplicity.$quot; The notice that reference in poetics has been entirely problematized by Hawthorne and postmodernists testifies the aestheticization of indeterminate Reality and that justifies The Marble Faun as a postmodern romance as well.

Hawthjorne 의 전통과 Fitzgerald 소설

백석현(Seok Hyun Paik)
미국소설학회|미국소설  8권 0호, 2001 pp. 91-112 ( 총 22 pages)
6,200
키워드보기
초록보기
F. Scott Fitzgerald`s later novel, The Great Gatsby shows the interrelation between his creative efforts and the central tradition of American novels, which is based on its own stylistic experiments distinguished from European novels and American idealism linked with the distinctive experience of American history. In fact Fitzgerald`s efforts to reach a deeper understanding of American idealism are intertwined with his artistic attempts to combine the elements of romance and realism, which go back to Nathaniel Hawthorne`s romance form Hawthorne`s romance, as he called his work is a stylistic experiment for describing the truth of the human heart and the discrepancies between the ideal and reality, strictly complying the requirement of realism In this respect, an accurate evaluation of the artistry of Fitzgerald`s novel will be possible when we corms to see clearly Ha2he`s stylistic mixture, which is well shown in The Scarlet Letter. At first sight, The Great Gatsby seems to be a novel deficient in reality. But we find in it very important cats of the Hawthornesque romance and realism. Idealism in Gatsby`s consciousness could be regarded as a Hawthornesque element. Fitzgerald uses the romance element very effectively in analyzing the nature of American idealism which Gatsby embodies, namely, its unlimited possibilities in life. And the other primary elements are none other than the narrative method employing a character-narrator and a series of dramatic scenes, which are intended for a real depiction of interplay between Gatsby`s idealism and his actual circumstances. In particular, a charter-narrator, Nick Carraway, plays the role of a moral critic as a storyteller having an omniscient point of view as well as a character intertwined with all the events and other characters in the novel; here he produces subtle ironies and realistic effects, recreating and manipulating the situations in the novel. With his creative and artistic efforts, Fitzgerald is successful in exploring American Idealism and the illusions that are inherent in it, approaching the traditional art of American novel, Hawthorne`s romance.

Beatrice Rappaccini 와 " Scribbling Women "

오정화(Jung Hwa Oh)
미국소설학회|미국소설  8권 0호, 2001 pp. 113-130 ( 총 18 pages)
5,800
키워드보기
초록보기
Critics have evaluated Hawthorne`s attitudes towards women writers diversely according to their critical positions. Most of feminists have criticized his stance notoriously expressed in his $quot;damned mob of scribbling women$quot; letter, which was sent to Ticknor. His stance regarding women writers was not a fixed one, however, sometimes ding them as in the $quot;scribbling worn$quot; letter or in $quot;Mrs. Hutchinson,$quot; but sometimes censuring them as in the very next letter sent to Tiknor or in his creation of Hester, another version of Mrs. Hutchinson. This paper approaches $quot;Rappaccini`s Daughter$quot; as a work to provide an important cue to understand Hawthorne`s complex attitudes towards women writers. In the prefatory $quot;Writings of Aube´pine$quot; Hawthorne represents himself through Aube´pine, who is located between the transcendentalists and the big group of popular writers. Likewise in the main story of $quot;Rappaccini`s Daughter$quot; Hawthorne projects himself to Giovanni Guasconti, who is between Rappaccini, the transcendentalist-like scientist, and Baglioni, the well-established professor. Beatrice Rappaccini is portrayed as a domestic novelist figure with her voice and power in spite of her life almost imprisoned within the wall of the Rapaccini`s garden. The beginning part of the story makes readers to wider how to interpret Beatrice, whether she is an angel in the house or a femme fatale since the narrator tells the story mainly through Giovanni`s point of view. As the story goes on, hover, the narrator distances himself from Giovanni`s and encourages readers to think how to interpret Giovanni, his fear and anxiety of Beatrice. Giovanni is both attracted to and repulsed from Beatrice. His anguish reflects Hawthorne`s anxiety of male authorship in the era when women writers come to have public voice and pour. Hawthorne, however, tries to have some distance from Giovanni and helps reads to recognize his cowardice and selfishness. It must be appreciated and reevaluated that Hawthorne objectifies his struggling with women writers and makes his own limits the object of irony.

Nathaniel Hawthorne 의 종교시 연구 : " Walking on the Sea " 를 중심으로

장인식(Ein Sik Chang)
미국소설학회|미국소설  8권 0호, 2001 pp. 131-146 ( 총 16 pages)
5,600
키워드보기
초록보기
So far on Hawthorne`s novels too many emphases have been placed neglecting the side of Hawthorne as a poet. But it can`t be denied that his attitude and intention are poetic ones in that he is perpetually looking for images showing spiritual facts with which he is concerned. His language is poetic, symbolic, and rich like that of a dramatic poet. It has been known that Fanshawe published in 1828 is his first novel. But predating that novel by nearly three years, $quot;The Ocean,$quot; and $quot;Moonlight$quot; appeared in the Gazette, which shows his concern for poetry. Hawthorne wrote mere poems than is commonly known. In 1846 Hawthorne`s religious poem, $quot;Walking on the Sea,$quot; appeared in the book, Scenes in the Life of the Saviour. This poem, based on the Biblical accident(John 6: 16-21), deals with Jesus` disciples on a dark and stormy night, weary from rowing and afraid of a ghost, and Jesus walking on the sea helping them. Hawthorne emphasizes the aspect of God helping the weary and discouraged, saying that His words, $quot;Be not afraid, it is I,$quot; comfort all His disciples in trouble everywhere In a sense the disciples` situation symbolizes men`s ultimate limitation, which Hawthorne solves by inviting the Almighty`s help and depending on apocalyptic vision in the Bible. This vision in this poem has much to do with his vision appearing in his novels through Veil image, Eden image, Antichrist image, and apocalyptic Last Judgment image.

The Scarlet Letter 의 Pearl 을 통하여 살펴 본 Hawthorne 의 낙관주의

천연희(Yeon Hee Cheon)
미국소설학회|미국소설  8권 0호, 2001 pp. 147-164 ( 총 18 pages)
5,800
키워드보기
초록보기
Many critics argue that The Scarlet lever is a deeply pessimistic work of art. But Pearl in the Romance represents Hawthorne`s hope showing that the psychological and social wholeness is possible through sympathy. This hope affirms the value of human unity or togetherness as a healing force. Pearl affirms hope for human improvement even though conditions in New England were hostile for her. She begins unsympathetic, isolated and inhuman, so her state in the beginning is pessimistic, indeed. but she improves herself by becoming sympathetic, human(a woman) involved in community. The fulfillment of Pearl`s humanization- $quot;be a woman$quot; in the weld- appeals in the conclusion. And her happiness at her fireside portrays on of Haw home`s ideal situation: is contentment at hone. Human being must sympathize with one another cavern $quot;fiend-like$quot;. Hawthorne affirm with Pearl`s story that to be in a community through sympathy is to be human. So Pearl`s story is optimistic.

Hawthorne 의 종교적 죄의식 : The Scarlet Letter 를 중심으로

최대해(Dae Hae Choi)
미국소설학회|미국소설  8권 0호, 2001 pp. 165-181 ( 총 17 pages)
5,700
키워드보기
초록보기
The objective of this paper is to analyze the sense of religious sin in Nathaniel Ha. This paper is to represend diverse approaches to the main Characters in The Scarlet Letter. Hawthorne was brought up in the family of Puritan tradition. He sets three characters on the stage and he is interested in moral, religious view. Hawthorne`s main material is the religious view and ethical point of Calvinistic life in New England. He believes that Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you, bless those who curse you, and pray for those who mistreat you. Three kinds of religious sin can be divided in The scarlet Letter. Hester Prynne commits sin of adultery with minister Dimmesdale, and she repents his sins. She is forced to tear `A` on her breast as a sign of adulteress. She heartily tries to overcome her sufferings. Finally, she has changed the meaning of adultery into Angel. Dimmesdale didn`t confess himself to guilty. His moral cowardice results in his sufferings. Eventually he confess his sin on the scaffold and dies. Even thou he confesses late, he also reaches his redemption. In Roger Chillingworth, Hawthorne deals with his malice. Chillingworth transformed himself into devil and `Unparadonable sinner`. He broke against the nature`s providence. Finally he can also get salvation by repenting. In elusion, Hawthorne, in The Scarlet Letter, represents that people are forced to take their right step because `They beings have an original sin.

" Young Goodman Brown " : 캘빈주의에 기초한 인간 죄의식

최영휴(Young Hu Choi)
미국소설학회|미국소설  8권 0호, 2001 pp. 183-200 ( 총 18 pages)
5,800
키워드보기
초록보기
Hawthorne presents a facet of the 17th century Christian lives and the Calvinistic principles through $quot;Young Goodman Brown.$quot; The artistic methods used in this wonderful masterpiece is Allegory and Ambiguity. Goodman Brown, a third generation Christian without any experience of conversion but admitted to the group of visible saints with the help of his grandfather and father, is falsely confident in his faith to push away the temptation of the devil whenever he wishes to, even if he participates in the obscene witches` Sabbath. F he that the visible saints are all by God`s election, which he negates the Calvinistic dogma of $quot;The Predetermmination$quot; that stipulates human beings can not share the pre-knowledge of God`s election with God. The devil`s temptation using his weakness is so carefully made that Goodman Brown finds the sinful nature hidden in the whole unkind including himself which is the opposite of his original idea about the visible saints in the puritan society, and that he comes to abandon himself into despair. His initiation into the forest by making a contract with the devil is a reason for his failure, but the real cause is to exclude himself from the universal category of $quot;The Total Depravity$quot; and refuse the fortune of $quot;Forytunate Fall.$quot; So he lives his life judging people around him and river makes it to the Heaven. Hawthorne`s christian vision that made him prove into the and its results is utterly opposed to the dogma of his comtemporary religious modernists like the transcendentalists and unitarians who insisted on the human beings` goodness and free will.
1