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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

현대영미소설검색

Studies in Modern Fiction


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 연3회
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1229-7232
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 20권 3호 (2013)
6,000
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When Iranian American woman writer Azar Nafisi published her first memoir, Reading Lolita in Tehran: A Memoir in Books, in 2003, she became instantly famous-and notorious-in the world`s literary arena. Literary fame, in a way, appears to have distanced Nafisi from her Iranian homeland, and the practice of recollecting such a homeland is a dangerous and even incriminating act. Nafisi nevertheless continues to look homeward, and in 2009 published a second memoir, Things I`ve Been Silent About: Memories of a Prodigal Daughter, a record of intimate family matters inevitably overshadowed by public affairs. By digging into her most private memories about herself and her family members and recounting stories told by her parents, in this self-proclaimed “family memoir,” Nafisi breaks away from the imposed injunction of silence by Iranian culture and re-creates an intricate web of intimacies, upon which the memoirist builds her narrative of growing pains. In this paper, I offer an affective reading of Things I`ve Been Silent About by analyzing the way in which Azar Nafisi constructs such an intimate space called home through breaking silence and re-membering stories.

(En)countering Modernity Ethnicly: Resistance and Intervention of Hagedorn`s Poetic Practice

( Shyh Jen Fuh )
6,800
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Taking Raymond Williams`s critique of the ideology of Modernism as its point of departure, this paper studies Jessica Hagedorn`s poems against the context of post-Modernism and illuminates how she, situated as a postcolonial Filipino, explores an alternative route of negotiating modernity. The reading of Hagedorn shows that her inscription of the colonial experience and decolonizing struggle of Filipinos makes a much needed re-mark of coloniality, this “darker side of Western modernity” as Walter D. Mignolo calls it, which has been by the large left out of the precinct of canonical Modernist poetry and its followers beyond its heyday. Furthermore, it observes Hagedorn`s negotiation with mass culture---a practice that distablizes the ostensible divide between the claimed serious art and popular culture as established by canonical Modernism---and illustrates how this poetic practice, through maintaining a dialogue with the widely circulating mass culture, makes a promising route of intervening and negotiating modernity. With this reading, it also contends that the poetic practice emerging from and positioned in the periphery of globalized modernity must be included in the knowledge production of modern and contemporary poetry so that more alternative responsible responses to modernity might be established and the “modern future” which Williams calls for might take place, displacing the ideology of Modernism that still dominates the scene of contemporary poetry.

Music, Memory, and Transgression in Ed Bok Lee`s Poetry

( Robert Grot John )
6,300
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This study uses research on collective memory, music and memory, transnationalism, and transgressive pedagogy to consider the ways in which the Korean American poet Ed Bok Lee presents music as a means of passing on collective memory and critiquing contemporary Korean popular culture. He identifies such memories as giving him a Korean “orientation of the soul” that he inherits from his parents, and he depicts that orientation in poems set in the U.S., especially “Inside Lake Heron,” from Real Karaoke People (2005). He claims to find that orientation most especially in the countryside when he returns to Korea. That orientation turns to disorientation in the cityscape of contemporary Seoul, as depicted through the musical motifs of “Chosun 5.0,” from Whorled (2011). Lee presents hallyu, particularly its musical manifestations, as a consumerist project that neglects Korean culture and history. Participation in that project through the unreflective consumption of k-pop and other manifestations of hallyu, implicates students in the neoliberal global economies that enforce “repetitions of the same” (Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri) through the “liturgical” (Jan Assmann) reinforcement of that sameness. While Lee`s poems can contribute to a transgressive, progressive pedagogy as advocated by Hyeyurn Chung and King-kok Cheung, one must also be aware of Lee`s essentializing “orientation.” On the terms suggested by Donald Pease, Lee`s essential tradition demonstrates that the transnational is also inescapably diasporic.
6,900
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While the mass internment of Japanese Americans in World War II has highlighted the Asian exclusionism and racial persecution in the United States, this paper aims not simply to reassert an Asian American politics against racism but to find in the process and aftermath of Japanese American internment an important sociopolitical arena for our critical meditation on and creative imagination of race relations in the U.S. Probing into Asian Americans` intermediary position in the conventional black-white racial dyad, the first section of this paper draws on Colleen Lye`s idea of “racial form.” Instead of conceiving race as determined by inherent biological features or indicating transhistorical entities, Lye proposes to read race as “form” (which is constituted by active social relations) and privileges the formal and stylistic creativity of literary and cultural texts to invent racial forms. The second and third sections of this paper move to Japanese American internment and study the case of Estelle Ishigo in Steven Okazaki`s documentary Days of Waiting (1990). Attending to Ishigo`s cross-racial life story, my reading not only explores the changeable contours of racial categorization in the context of the internment but also reveals the inadequacy of the “whites vs. Japanese Americans” critical model in excavating the cross-racial dialectics evoked by Days of Waiting.

Of Imperial Trauma: or, MohsinHamid`s Critique of American Empire

( Yu Cheng Lee )
6,000
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Mohsin Hamid`s second novel The Reluctant Fundamentalist can be conveniently assigned to the literary family of what we now call post-9/11 fiction. Changez, a Princeton graduate and the narrator-protagonist of the novel, starts out as a third-world immigrant working as an analyst at a valuation firm in Manhattan. He considers his life in metropolitan New York a great success, and this encourages him to embrace the American dream wholeheartedly. However, his American dream turns sour and nightmarish in the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks as the United States launches her global war on terror and wholesale intervention in world affairs-a theme that runs through the pages of the novel. In his reflections on the ways that make possible America`s “constant interference in the affairs of others,” Changez also diagnoses that “finance was a primary means by which the American empire exercised its power,” based, of course, on his various Manhattan experiences. Finding the new social-political atmosphere in the US suffocating and unbearable, Changez gives up his work in Manhattan and returns to his hometown, Lahore, campaigning against American imperialism and devoting himself to the cause of fighting American military and economic hegemony. This paper takes The Reluctant Fundamentalist as a fable of infatuation and disenchantment with the US. I shall analyse how 9/11 becomes a defining moment in the life of Changez, shattering his American dream and turning him into an American-made reluctant fundamentalist. I shall also draw on Judith Butler`s ideas of precarious life and livable life to foreground Changez`s critique of America`s failure to show due respect to, and be bound by, an ethical responsibility towards the Other.

Monica Sone`s Nisei Daughter: Internment and Psychoracial Development

( Sung Hee Yook )
6,700
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The Japanese internment was the legitimate, political, and material manifestation of racism the American government inflicted on Japanese Americans. As the institutionalized form of racism, the internment is the main wound that causes the collective silence of Japanese Americans to be formed. The collective silence of Japanese Americans is getting more complicated as the internees live with the desire to be accepted into mainstream society and encounter their constant refusal. Hence, to examine the nature of their silence is to examine its relation to the racism inflicted on the Japanese Americans. My exploration of Sone`s Nisei Daughter focuses on the process of the young narrator`s psychoracial development. Exploring the process of her racial awakening, this paper examines the constructing process of the collective silence of the Japanese internees and deals with the psychological interactions of the internees with American racism, assimilation, and their Japaneseness. Drawing on psychoanalysis and trauma studies, this paper will provide crucial insights into the psychological responses of the internees towards their Yankee and Japanese ideals.
6,400
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Cristina Garcia`s Monkey Hunting examines the history of Chinese Cubans who went to Cuba as contract laborers in the late nineteen century. As the text portrays the experiences of Chinese transnational migrants and their encounters with European colonialists, Cuban natives and African slaves, it can be defined as an “Asian global narrative” which thematizes globalization and its ensuing phenomenon of cultural and racial hybridization. The family saga of Chen Pan, a Chinese Cuban, begins with his marriage to an African slave woman in Cuba, and spans four generations of his descendants and covers their serial migration to America, Vietnam, and Shanghai. Although their lives are intertwined with the historical and political turmoil of European colonialism, the Cuban Revolution, and the Vietnam War, Garcia focuses upon the personal struggles of Asian and African diasporas and their descendants who must continually negotiate their racial and cultural identities. Garcia recuperates the history of Chinese migrant laborers who not only participated in but also made significant contributions to the nation building project of Cuba. In doing so, she presents Chinese Cubans as Cuban national and historical subjects. Claiming that “traditional history obviates women and the evolution of home, family, and society,” she portrays women as historical subjects as they construct their subjectivities and create their home and family in spite of racial discrimination and ideological obstacles. Garcia, in creating a fiction about a Chinese migrant laborer who marries an African slave woman and creates a family in Cuba, expands not only the category of Asian American literature but also that of African American literary studies.
7,000
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This paper examines Birds of Paradise Lost and Perfume Dreams by Andrew Lam, an active Vietnamese American writer and journalist. The two works offer the opportunity to look at the Vietnamese Diaspora from the perspective of its disastrous past, its multiple lifestyles related with the ‘American Dream,’ and its implications for the life of the Vietnamese of the Diaspora in the 21st globalized century. Above all, Lam shows us the face of the tragic Vietnamese war and its immediate aftermath leading to miserable lives under communism and desperate escape experiences on helicopters and risky boats, which are the sources of the trauma Vietnamese American people have suffered from. On the one hand, he thinks remembering and facing the past is essential, in order for the Vietnamese of the Diaspora to get over its trauma, to live lives in the present, and to proceed toward the future with hope. On the other hand, Lam`s works suggest that the American main stream should necessarily admit its shame in the Vietnam War and rectify its narcissistic cultural representations. Next, Lam describes a variety of ‘American Dream’ lifestyles, from exiles living in the past with no interest in adjusting themselves to American society through the ‘model minority’ assimilating themselves into American value systems to alienated Vietnamese with no ability to go up the ladder of the American social class system. This description of the multiple lives of the Vietnamese of the Diaspora is important in refuting the meme of the invisibility of the faceless Vietnamese created by American main stream discourse. Last, Lam suggests the possibility of Vietnamese Diaspora offering a base by default for a plural and hybrid self called ‘a transnational cosmopolitan.’ This is one who crosses national borders with freedom and accepts multiple cultures into oneself. This identity is fluid, recreative, and hybrid, at home everywhere, and always in the making process. The transnational cosmopolitan identity shows the irony of history transforming the tragic into an unexpected gate into free and successful citizenship of the world. Andrew Lam`s vision of the contemporary lives of the Vietnamese of the Diaspora offers insight and hope, in a courageous exploration of often ignored social issues.
6,200
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Jacques Derrida notes that “displaced persons, exiles, those who deported, expelled, rootless, nomads, all share two sources of sighs, two nostalgias: their dead ones and their language.” What he says of exiles can apply to Khaled Hosseini, Afghan-born American writer who has published three novels: The Kite Runner, A Thousand Splendid Suns, and And the Mountains Echoed. His novels are all based on Afghanistan and thereby reveal “sighs” and “nostalgias” for his homeland as well as for his native language which Derrida says is “the ensemble of culture.” This paper discusses his most recent novel And the Mountains Echoed in light of Derrida`s remarks on exiles and displaced persons and highlights how Hosseini`s “sighs” and “nostalgias” are embedded in the text. Also, this paper discusses in what ways Hosseini comes to terms with being “a foreigner by birth” and continues to return to Persian poets such as Jelaluddin Rumi and Forough Farrokhzad. It also addresses the question of betrayal and guilt stemming from the writer`s existential situation in which he is forced to adopt and write in a foreign language.

전쟁과 치유의 서사 -제인 앤 필립스의 『라크와 터마이트』와 노근리 양민 학살

유제분 ( Je Boon Yu )
6,300
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Jayne Anne Phillips`s Lark & Termite is a war narrative in which the American point of view is embedded in the depiction of No Gun Ri Massacre which occurred during the Korean War. Nevertheless, this anti-war narrative should be highly evaluated in its attempt to represent the Korean War and No Gun Ri Massacre, thus saving them from oblivion. Despite a few limitations of its representation, the novel connects No Gun Ri of Korea and Winfield of West Virginia, the Past and the Present by frequent use of images, motives, metaphors and supernatural literary devices. Through the poetic lyricism evoked by these literary devices, the author experiments with a narrative contingent upon mutual communication and the rapprochement between different spaces and times. Termite, located at the center of this experiment, is the metaphorical figure signifying the scar of war and ``eternal infant`` to borrow Agamben`s terminology. Through him, the author carefully explores a possibility to heal the wounds of war.
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