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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

근대영미소설검색

British and American Fiction


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 연3회
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1229-3644
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 9권 2호 (2002)

"잘려나간" 굴뚝과 남성 작가의 좌절: 멜빌의 단편소설 연구

박연옥 ( Yun Ok Park )
5,800
초록보기
Among Melville`s magazine stories written between 1853 and 1855, many deal with figures for the "failed" male artist placed in a variety of domestic, social, and commercial settings. In this paper, I discuss his three later stories, "Jimmy Rose," "The Apple-Tree Table," and "I and My Chimney," in which the old-fashioned male householders and the female family members with more modern spirit in everything compete for the authority in the house. I argue that this lond of gender conflict between the male and the female m the domestic setting can be read as a projection of Melville`s conflict with the "feminized" literary marketplace at the time Therefore, mainly focusing on the last short story, I am trying to figure out Melville`s perspective on the marketplace and domestic relationship of the male protagonist and on the consequence for himself to his vision. "I and My Chimney" features, in the narrator`s relation to its central symbol, one of the author`s richest images for the need to defend masculine genius against the assaults of a feminizing world The "beheaded" chimney, which the narrator calls his "backbone," functions as a kind of phallic monument to Melville`s own literary career, damaged but not destroyed, and with its foundations still in place.

도시적 감수성의 문화적 형상화: 『막대한 유산』을 중심으로

성은애 ( Eun Ai Sung )
6,200
초록보기
There in no doubt that Dickens is one of the first writers who portrayed city life in its entirety and dynamics Great Expectations, one of the Dickens` later masterpieces, is different from other melodramatic novels with a hero as a young man from the countryside, who comes to be disillusioned by the metropolis. In Great Expectations, the country is both a underdeveloped, uncivtlized and commnon place and a place where people like Joe and Biddy can live peacefully The narrator`s attitude toward the country is neither contempt nor nostalgia, or rather, both of them. When he depicts the filth of London or its unbearable snobs, he has in mind Joe`s simple dignity as a touchstone against which so called `gentlemanliness` of the city men is judged. However, coming back to his hometown, far from the madding crowd of the city, is not among his options, although he thinks he wants to marry Biddy and live with Joe. He seems to find a kind of equilibrium between the two uncompatible ways of life, definitely not in the way of Wemmick, who divides himself into two different selves. As a novel which depicts both the country and the city, Great Expectations provides an opportunity to put Dickens` attitude toward the city, especially the 19th century London, in a larger context.

케이트 소펜의 지방색 정치학

이경란 ( Kyung Ran Lee )
6,100
초록보기
In the second half of the nineteenth century, writers in various parts of USA developed a genre of which women would be major practitioners. It was first called `Local Color` literature, for it realistically represented the languages, customs, geography, and manners of specific regions. Yet complex workings of geographical as well as gender hierarchies of American society made the works dealing with the Southern/rural lives a diminished version of canonical Realism dealing with the Northeastern/urban. The Northeast editors often than not used Local Color, or Regional literature, to confirm the Northeast as an American literary center in keeping with the North`s position as a victor of the Civil War. Kate Chopin, a Southern woman writer, was quite aware of the complex politics operating around so called Local Color-both the benefits and the risks of her being associated with it She identified herself with European realism, expecially French Maupassant Yet she used effectively both the literary conventions as well as the marginalized status of Local Color in her works In her "Desiree`S Baby"(1892) and "La Belle Zoraide"(1893), the literary conventions of `tragic mulatta` standing on the color line and the exotic Creole cultures were effectively used to cover her subversive messages.

디킨즈와 근대성 문제: 감금된 삶과 해방된 삶

장남수 ( Nam Soo Chang )
6,000
초록보기
This paper aims to examine Dickens`s Little Dorrit terms of its relation with the modernity problem, focusing on the Blake`s distinction of `selfhood` (ie, the false self) from `identity` (ie, the genuine self). The individual as selfhood has the characteristics of egotistically following possessive impulses and embodying normalized selves; on the other hand, the individual as a creative identity makes possible a liberation from the narrow modern ego and the exploitative economy. The former, because of its weak individuality, Just follows society`s current opinion, even when senous disasters are looming ahead. But the identity empowered with the strong individuality might see the actual state of affairs differently and oppose the general collapse. Among the characters in Little Dorrit, Christopher Casby, Mrs. Clennam, William Dorrit, and Henry Gowan represent `selfhood,` and Amy Dorrit and Daniel Doyce represent `identity.` Such qualities as innocence and disinterestedness, creativity and individuality of the latter group contribute to the collaborative creation of the genuine `reality.` These are qualities generating and sustaining the humane space by liberated lives, while the former group`s characteristics can be summarized as ones enclosed in the modern capitalist economy. Now we are witnessing the coming of `society of control` or `empire` accompanied by the spread of standardization on an unparalleled scale, the cause and effect of which might be attributed to the general spread of normalized selves. If we tread in their footsteps, there is no way to conceive alternative ways of life, because, as said before, they have no ability to think differently. The significance of Dickens`s notion of the imprisoned life and liberated life lies in this context.

선정소설과 여성의 육체: 메리 엘리자베스 브래던의 『오들리 부인의 비밀』

장정희 ( Jung Hee Chang )
6,200
초록보기
This paper examines the representation of female body in victorian Sensation Novel focusing on female body/maternity/madness in Mary Elizabeth Braddon`s Lady Audley`s Secret. Lucy Audley`s body is represented in the contradictory discourse on woman in which woman is figured as either demon or angel. The iconography of angel and demon reflects the fear which pervaded middle-class culture that the demonic woman would be the threat to the mainteenance of a healthy, middle-class society. Lucy Audley`s body is also represented in tenos of the contemporary medical discourse in which woman`s behaviour is related to the unstable nature of the female body` the instability of Lucy Audley is most evident when it becomes a maternal body and the text explores many aspects of the construction of maternal insanity. The text leads the reader to evaluate the discourse of maternal insanity not as a matter of biological organization but as that of legal, social and economic position. The process of containment of Lucy Audley`s diseased body vividly shows association between madness and the feminine which was pervasive in the nineteenth century culture. It dramatizes the contemporary thought that the diseased female body should be constrained and punished by the patriarchal order of Victorian society. However, her body is refigured in a new vein of the text and Braddon leads the reader to explore the subversive meanings embedded in the text. Braddon goes further than criticising Victorian constructions of female body and femininity she examines the work done by the legal and medical discourse in protecting class boundaries Braddon`s representation of female body is used not as a mere instrument of sensational effect but as a significant device to lead the reader to reconsider victorian discourses on female body.

타자성에 대한 불안: 『문스톤』

조애리 ( Ai Lee Cho )
한국근대영미소설학회|근대영미소설  9권 2호, 2002 pp. 109-122 ( 총 14 pages)
5,400
초록보기
Collins wrote The Moonstone in the decade following Indian Mutiny, when the stories of rebel atrocities were still flourishing. While Victonan Writings about Mutiny conform to racist pattern that calls for the extermination of Indians, Collins elaborately represents how anxiety about otherness works by displacing Indian Mutiny into the more distant siege of Seringapatam. In this work the trope of counter-invasion gathers together in the Indians, the diamond and the opium, a dark new vision of Indian otherness emerges. One way to cope with the situation is to fix the other as an inferior stereotype the symptom of difference is made a sign of inferior sameness; the opium selling organization with which three Indians are supposed to be associated becomes merely an inferior double of British social organization The other way is to represent Indians as morally sublime beings, ready to sacrifice caste for the sake of religion. Nevertheless their sacrifice is placed in the cyclic history, separate from the European history of progress. All efforts to fix the colonized other as a stereotype are doomed to fail, because otherness is already a part of the colonial subject Though colonial authority continually defines and redefines itself through differentiating itself from the colonized other, it is doomed to fall and the moment of the protagonist`s surprising revelation becomes the paradigmatic blot of the novel. Opium causes colonial subject to lose his integrity of character. Only after being severed from agency can his integrity be restored. After excluding otherness. English domestic order is finally restored after excluding other, it appears reduced and fragile.

Two Contradictory Narratives in David`s Consciousness: A Bakhtinian Reading of David Copperfield

( Myung Jin Kim )
한국근대영미소설학회|근대영미소설  9권 2호, 2002 pp. 123-155 ( 총 33 pages)
7,300
초록보기
Although there have been some critics who observe the inconsistencies in David`s narrative, few explain how these inconsistencies originate in David`s consciousness Only some psychoanalytical readings discuss the coexistence of contradictory elements of David`s development in relation to his experiences of self and loss, especially in the early stages of development However, these readings cannot explain some important social elements immanent in the novel because they are generally based on the conception of the self as a separate and autonomous identity. In contrast, this reading is more concerned with the reciprocal relation between the particular individual and his society, than with the individual as a separate identity, as far as the formation of the self is concerned. As a result of this socially-oriented reading, it will be shown that the contradictions in David`s development contain more social traits than psychological traits. Although David Copperfield appears dominated by progressive moments of an earnest self-made man with deep work ethic, some regressive moments draws David repeatedly back into the past, trapped in his nightmarish past. These regressive moments are represented by three modes in the novel David`s obsessive class consciousness in his relationship to other people, his total renunciation of the past related to the experiences at Murdstone & Grinby, and his feeling of uncertainty ever-present in the tone of his narration. According to Bakhtin, self is constructed by the interrelation between 1-for-myself (the image of I from I`s point of view) and 1-for-others (the image of I from others` point of view) On the basis of Bakhtin`s idea of self, the conflicts and the tensions of David`s psychic life are recast as versions of the conflicts of social ideas: the willed idea of bourgeois orthodoxies of earnestness and self-help, and a snobbish ideal of bourgeois class consciousness. These contradictory ideas coexist in an uneasy balance, or an unresolved tension, and they persist throughout David`s narrative.

Male Masquerade in Our Mutual Friend

( Hyung Ji Park )
한국근대영미소설학회|근대영미소설  9권 2호, 2002 pp. 157-177 ( 총 21 pages)
6,100
초록보기
Critical discussions of the masquerade often associate the performance of gender with a lack of social, economic, or political power, ranging from discussions of femininity as masquerade to the cultual history of the masked ball to mimesis in the colonial context. This paper investigates male performance in order to propose that masculinity can also be considered a masquerade and to question the implications for a theory that links the performance of gender to social disempowerment. Charles Dickens`s Our Mutual Friend(1864-65) provides a key example for this discussion, since the novel generally assigns tts male characters the role of performance and its female characters the role of audience In some ways, the male characters, especially John Harmon and Nick Boffin, can be seen as stage-managers controlling the script even as they are performers. But on the other hand, these two figures are both marginalized from their surrounding English society, Boffin as an illiterate servant-turned-wealthy heir, and Harmon as an English blank slate returning from fourteen years abroad. This paper demonstrates that performance can be at once an empowering means and a disempowered requirement in Our Mutual Friend, and illmninates the limitations and possibilities of the male masquerade.

Tess`s Sexual Elusiveness and Hardy`s Ambivalence in Tess of the D`Urbervilles

( Young Hee Son )
한국근대영미소설학회|근대영미소설  9권 2호, 2002 pp. 179-203 ( 총 25 pages)
6,500
초록보기
In Tess of the D`Urbervilles Hardy aims at criticizing Victorian English society through Tess, who is doubly victimized by Alec`s sexual exploitation and Angel`s narrow middle-class sexual morality. The author`s-and the narrator`s as well-intention is, however, frequently challenged by some conflicting elements in the text. In Tess, Nature is a powerful antidote to oppressive society. The narrator suggests that Tess, recovering with the revitalizing force of Nature after the broken relationship with Alec, is pure, though unchaste by conventional Victorian standards, because her desire is acceptable from Nature`s viewpoint According to him, her sexual desire is justified by benevolent Nature which considers it natural in all living things. Her desiring body is the font of life whereas that of Angel, repressed by reason, drains his life force. However, Tess`s sexual desire, which is approved of by Nature and thus should be encouraged in the text, actually tends to be discouraged. She is disinclined to show sexual frankness and shies away from it As a result, It reinforces the impression that she is pure by conventional standards, which obviously collides with the author and narrator`s argument that she is pure in the eye of Nature. In Tess, nature is multiple-faceted, which further serves to undermine the author`s argument for Tess`s purity. Most of the time it is sympathetic and benevolent to human beings, especially towards Tess Nevertheless, from time to time, this position is denounced as being a pathetic fallacy and the narrator suggests that nature is neutral or even harsh towards humans. The author and narrator`s conflict is also found in the characterization of Tess, who is alternately conventional and radical She is independent and strong-willed, defying conventions, but weak and passive as well. In Tess, the prevailing values and, especially, sexual morality of the nineteenth century English society are criticized as inappropriate for modern society because they are based upon middle-class Christianity, which subjects the body to the mind and brings about the dichotomous disintegration Tess defies the disintegration and tries to integrate the mind into the body, which is to be understood as an effort to create new values. It shows that, despite the acute conflict found in the text, Hardy continued searching for alternative values for modern society.

Unveiling a Lady?: Hawthorne and the "Scribbling Women"

( Jeong Hee Sohn )
한국근대영미소설학회|근대영미소설  9권 2호, 2002 pp. 205-225 ( 총 21 pages)
6,100
초록보기
This paper aims to explore how Nathaniel Hawthorne`s reaction to his contemporary women writers illuminates the cultural and literary scene of mid-nineteenth-century America, and how Hawthorne and the "scribbling women" functioned as cultural performers in the same literary scene. Hawthorne has often been claimed to have a hosttle attitude toward women writers, particularly in view of his derogatory remark on the "damned mob of scribbling women." However, considering that he also praised some of these "scribbling women," It can be argued that his attitude toward these women writers was ambivalent. In fact, Hawthorne`s response to these scribblers unwittingly provides a useful basis for a revisionary discussion of the literary scene of mid-nineteenth-century America. In various sources, Hawthorne persistently emphasizes that women writers reveal or unveil their most private part of life beyond women`s role prescribed by domestic ideology of his day. In this regard, the image of the Veiled Lady, which constitutes a central motif in The Bluthedale Romance, can be argued to show the crux of Hawthorne`s conceptualization of the "scribbling women." The Veiled Lady represents the paradoxical position of women writers: on the one hand, she symbolizes women controlled by domestic ideology, but on the other hand, she herself embodies woman`s participation m the public realm. The literary works by Hawthorne and women writers were produced by the cultural situation in which they in common had to struggle with the questions of how to represent the concerns proposed by domestic ideology and how to appeal to the growing reading public As a result, Hawthorne`s response to the changes in the literary marketplace is well exemplified by the forced ending of The House of the Seven Gables which can be read as one in a domestic novel. On the other hand, Uncle Tom`s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, one of the "scribbling women," cannot simply labelled as a sentimental domestic novel with its deep concern with the slavery issue and huge social response it brought forth. Then, as we can draw from the fact that both Hawthorne and Stowe employed the same cultural situation in which domestic ideology pervaded and the literary market was undergoing a radical change, Hawthorne and the "scribbling women" were cultural performers, who responded to the same cultural scene, sometimes in a different way but more often in a similar way.
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