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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

Journal of Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics (Journal of PAAL )검색


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 언어학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 반년간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1345-8353
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 14권 2호 (2010)
6,300
초록보기
The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of rater training in an L2 performance assessment and to examine the eligibility of L2 users of English as raters in L2 performance assessment. Rater training was conducted in order for raters to clearly understand the criteria, the evaluation items, and the evaluation procedure.In this evaluation, the rater training was conducted based on Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR).In the training, the raters watched the videos (North and Hughes, 2003), and discussed the learners` characteristics at each level. The analyses of the evaluations were done before and after the rater training based on Generalizability (G-Theory) and Multifaceted Rasch Analysis (MFRA). In the analyses based on G-Theory, the variance related to the items was reduced to about one sixth after the training, though no difference was found in the rater characteristics before and after the training in the analysis based on MFRA. Comparing the results of Kim (2009) with those of the present study, the raters are equally self-consistent with the raters of native speakers of English in Kim (ibid). Furthermore, it is legitimate to adopt L2 users as the raters, because, in countries where English is a foreign or second language, the non-native users teach and learn English. In this situation, teachers of L2 users are the most appropriate in L2 performance assessment if they are self-consistent in their ratings.
초록보기
This paper aims at comparing the five English diphthongs, /ei/, /ou/, /au/, /ai/, /[1]i/, in the aspect of length, to find out a common feature in /au/, ai/, /[1]i/ and /ei/, and /ou/ and to see if there is any evidence between English low vowels and diphthongs. This study is a following research of Park (2009), and I analyzed each diphthong statistically to find out the corelation between English low vowels and English diphthongs, /au/, /ai/, /[1]i/, beginning with English low vowels. To make this research, four Korean college students and five Americans participated in the experiment as subjects. All the subjects are female, and their age ranges from 21 to 39. Through statistical analysis of experimental data, I couldn`t find out anything in common between the length of the two English diphthongs /ei/ and /ou/. From this I could see that there isn`t any common feature between the two diphthong groups, which begin with front mid and back mid position, respectively. However, in the English diphthongs /ai/, /au/, and /[1]i/, there is a common feature among them; the average length of the Korean subjects` pronunciation is less than that of the native subjects` pronunciation, regardless of its sentence positions. Because English diphthongs, /ai/, /au/, and /[1]i/, have a common feature in that they begin with English low vowels, /a/ and /[1]/, I could get a hint that Koreans` difficulty of pronunciation of these English diphthongs may come from the difficulty of English low vowels, and we could use the results in the classroom in teaching English vowels effectively.

Anxiety and Academic Reading Performance among Malay ESL Learners

( Zuhana Mohd Zin ) , ( Shameem Rafik Galea )
5,800
초록보기
Research into the factors that contribute to reading performance decrement in L2 reading among ESL university students is still being extensively researched in the context of ELT. This is because successful academic performance is highly dependent on good reading ability. While it is widely accepted that poor reading performance is due to lack of linguistics knowledge, ESL students` reading performance is sometimes said to be influenced by anxiety. L2 reading research has indicated that anxiety is among one of the important factors in explaining individual differences in reading. Studies have shown that anxiety can hinder comprehension by interfering with the readers` cognitive systems which are responsible for processing the information in the reading texts. It appears that anxious readers are most likely to experience interference with their cognitive ability resulting in deficits in their comprehension performance. Hence, anxiety is seen to play a role in influencing comprehension performance among the ESL learners. This paper presents findings based on a study which investigated the relationship between reading anxiety and comprehension performance of academic texts among ESL Malay students. The findings show that the anxiety influenced the subjects` reading performance significantly.
6,600
초록보기
This study aims at evaluating Top-Notch series through a checklist devised by the researchers based on the elements of the Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory proposed by Gardner (1998). With the shift from teacher-centered classrooms to learner-centered one, more and more research is/is needed to be done in the realm of students` need analysis. One of the undeniable needs of the students to be fulfilled is for them to learn through the intelligence they are most capable at while the educational system mainly addresses students` verbal intelligence. This study has evaluated Top Notch series in terms of taking the nine intelligences into consideration through answering these two questions: 1. To what extent does Top-Notch series represent the MI features? 2. How frequently each of the eight intelligences is used in each book of the series? The results confirm that Top Notch is rich in addressing verbal intelligence followed by the visual, logical, musical, interpersonal, bodily, and intrapersonal one while to some extent poor in representing natural and existential intelligences. It also shows that there exists a pattern of some of the intelligences-addressing through different levels, for example unlike visual intelligence, verbal-intelligence-addressing enhances as the books grow in level. The comparison of the results with that of Interchange series evaluation illustrated that Top Notch is more representative of the intelligences and that it is a suitable alternative to the Interchange in terms of addressing the elements of MI principles or as Lezear (1991) puts it "Ways of Knowing".
6,000
초록보기
The purpose of this paper is to investigate what characteristics make American Native Speakers of English (ANSE) different from Korean Speakers of English (KSE) when they are asked to introduce themselves in English. In particular, components and topics of self-introduction, the use of word number and class, and the use of discourse markers (DM) are discussed. The most salient features of ASE and KSE are also discussed on the basis of an oral interview of 14 respondents. DM in this study are defined as word(s) or phrases to create and maintain the atmosphere of more smooth, lively and personal relationship between the speaker and the hearer. Therefore, what have been treated as "fillers" in traditional grammar are included in DM in this study. For example, "haha," "and(ah)," "yah," "uhm (ahm, uh)" and the like are treated as DM because they are used to make the conversation flow more smooth and personal. Both particles and connectives can also be included in the category of DM. Interview results show that there are, indeed, different characteristics between ANSE and KSE in their use of components and topics of self-introduction, and of DM. However, these different characteristics do not lead to reduce mutual intelligibility or comprehensibility. No significant differences can be found from their use of word number and class in both groups. Due to the small number of respondents and the structure of the study, it is hard to generalize the results of this study. It is suggested that further studies are needed. Since both ANSE and KSE can understand each other, these different characteristics do neither cause any intelligibility problems nor comprehensibility problems. Therefore, these characteristics should be valued and respected since both ANSE and KSE are indeed speakers of English living in this global world where both diversity and uniformity coexist and valued.

Is Oral Performance Affected by Motivation?

( Seyyed Mohammad Ali Soozandehfar )
5,500
초록보기
The present investigation intends to make a comparison between integratively motivated students of English at Islamic Azad University of Shiraz and their instrumentally motivated peers in terms of their oral performance. To this end, 35 junior students (15 males and 20 females) were selected out of 54 initial participants based on their scores on the Oxford Placement Test. A 20-item motivation questionnaire adopted from Laine (1969) was employed to constitute two groups of 13 integrative and 22 instrumental students. The students` scores on the two courses of Oral Reproduction 1 & 2 were used to represent their oral proficiency. The statistical analysis, using independent t-test, revealed that there was no significant difference between the integratively oriented participants and their instrumentally oriented counterparts as far as their speaking was concerned. Teachers in an EFL context can use either instrumental or integrative motivation to develop students` L2 speaking ability.
5,900
초록보기
The present paper reviews the traditional methodologies of translator training and proposes an eclectic multi-componential approach that involves a set of interdisciplinary skills with the ultimate objective of meeting market demand. Courses on translation for specific purposes (TSP) and think-aloud protocols (TAP) along with self-monitoring and self-evaluation mechanisms go in parallel with group projects to provide trainee translators with a fair knowledge of the tactics of target text production, teamwork cooperation and labour division. Simulated conference interpreting prepares trainees to research terminology and background information and refers to documentation from previous conferences with an emphasis on memory, attention, and automaticity. Peer review and revision enable not only the teacher to give positive feedback in the classroom but also the students to find out why the interpretation went wrong by evaluating their colleagues or themselves. Finally, it is important to enhance TT delivery skills as the key to successful interpretation in the interpretation market. The ability to render the target text verbally or in writing is as important as the ability to understand the source message.
6,300
초록보기
The aim of this study is to investigate which pronunciations of English are difficult or different from one`s first language, as well as to explore which factors are crucial for communication with people from other cultures when English is used as one of the World Englishes. Ninety-one undergraduate students (85 females and 6 males) from two different Korean universities participated in this study. A survey was conducted to determine their background information and to find out their attitudes toward World Englishes. This study was based on two concepts: ``intelligibility`` (focusing on words) and ``comprehensibility`` (focusing on meaning) when communicating with people from different countries`. For attaining intelligibility, one must overcome such factors as pronunciation, stress, intonation, and the vowel and consonant sounds of English. On the other hand, for achieving comprehensibility, there are other factors predominate such as grammatical, cultural, socio-linguistic and pragmatic aspects. Thus, in order to avoid intelligibility and comprehensibility problems, EFL/ESL students should learn all the common varieties of English used between native speakers and non-native speakers (NSs-NNSs) and between two non-native speakers (NNSs-NNSs). Additionally, students should consider and respect different situations and different cultural backgrounds to establish successful intelligibility and comprehensibility.
6,200
초록보기
In designing an EAP (English for Academic Purposes) course it is necessary that we consider several factors: students` objectives, needs, levels and interests, course and institution`s goals, and availability of resources. In this paper it is strived to elucidate the differences between EGP (English for General purposes) and ESP (English for Specific purposes) courses. The experience of teaching in EFL situation indicates that our students largely need general English rather than specific English. Also, it is endeavored to discuss the role of EAP teachers and learners. Meanwhile, we will try to illustrate the crucial role that common core, content-based instruction, needs analysis, materials, and classroom activities serve in EAP syllabuses. It is discussed that before embarking on teaching, we need to take heed of students` levels, aims and needs. This paper can have significant implications for EAP teachers, graduate students, syllabus designers, material developers, and researchers in the field of EAP.
6,500
초록보기
This study examines skillful EFL writers` and less skillful writers` EFL performance and perceptions of paraphrasing and inappropriate text borrowing, the extent to which their performance matches perceptions, and the factors behind their problematic text borrowing. Ninety-five postgraduates and undergraduates in Taiwan accomplished a paraphrasing task and completed a questionnaire. The findings revealed a mismatch between the participants` behaviors and perceptions. The participants tended to deny having committed plagiarism and claimed they were aware of the importance of paraphrasing. However, such belief has contrasted sharply with their actual behaviors in the paraphrasing task in which both postgraduates and undergraduates failed to produce acceptable texts. The reasons for this included not having explicitly learned paraphrasing, unsuccessful transfer of paraphrasing knowledge to writing due to a lack of experience and practice, and the influence of their citation practice in Chinese writing. In addition, the undergraduates plagiarized more strings of words than the graduate students did. The possible reasons for this could include the undergraduates` less sufficient metacognitive knowledge and strategies, as well as their immature cognitive development. This study suggests that to raise EFL students` awareness of and performance in paraphrasing, improving their English proficiency and metacognition, and practice on paraphrasing are necessary in EFL writing classes.
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