글로버메뉴 바로가기 본문 바로가기 하단메뉴 바로가기

논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

Journal of Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics (Journal of PAAL )검색


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 언어학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 반년간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1345-8353
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 15권 2호 (2011)
초록보기
This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and developmental phenomena apparent in Japanese learners of English with their raters`` perspectives in terms of fluency which has been recognized as a major factor in judging non-native speakers`` proficiency. The following temporal indices demonstrated strong relationships with the raters`` scores on fluency: total number of syllables including/excluding dysfluency, total number of words, and total speaking time including pause time. The three indices can be useful when confined to Japanese students. With regard to pauses and hesitations, the university students exhibited results comparable to other participants; however, the locations and lengths of pauses at a phrase boundary alone gave evidence that they paused at grammatical junctures.
5,700
초록보기
As regards the acquisition of L2 verbal morphology, one of the universal tendencies as elucidated by the Interlanguage Discourse Hypothesis (Bardovi-Harlig, 1994, p.43) is that language learners use emerging verbal morphology to distinguish foreground and background in narratives. This present study examines whether Thai EFL learners`` use of English tense-aspect morphology is influenced by narrative structure by addressing 2 research questions: (i) Do learners exhibit different rates of use of past in foreground and background? (ii) How do dominant forms of foreground and background change as the learners become more proficient with respect to their L2 tense-aspect system? Data for the analysis came from written narratives produced by 120 Thai EFL learners divided into 5 proficiency levels. Results showed that the foreground exhibited greater rates of use of past than background across proficiency levels. The dominant forms characterizing foreground and background, however, change from nonpast to past as learners become more proficient with respect to their L2 tense-aspect system. Revealing an interplay between distribution of verbal morphology regarding narrative structure, the findings provide empirical support for the Interlanguage Discourse Hypothesis and shed light on the nature of difficulty learners experience in developing their L2 grammatical competence.
5,300
초록보기
The objective of this research is to detect effective factors in English pronunciation teaching from the viewpoint of EIL (English as an International Language). This research is based on the data of the Successful Pronunciation Learners (SPL) selected by the raters, Japanese and native speakers of English (NSE), in Tominaga (2005). On the grounds that the aim of teaching English to Japanese students should not be confined within the intelligibility to NSE, in order to examine whether the pronunciation of each SPL in this research is really not only intelligible but also sounds good to both NSE and non-NSE from the viewpoint of World Englishes (WE) or EIL, their pronunciations were evaluated by non-NSE from 12 countries studying English in an English school in the United Kingdom. This evaluation was analyzed and compared with the evaluation by the NSE. In respect of the correlation between the evaluations by NSE and those by non-NSE, significant correlation was found between rhythm and fluency. In regard to the total score, the evaluation by non-NSE was generally stricter than that by NSE
5,200
키워드보기
초록보기
Program and/or course evaluation is, in fact, one of the essential aspects of any curriculum. It is a kind of quality control in which various aspects of an instructional program are explored. Program evaluation is an attempt in which different elements of a given curriculum are scrutinized in depth. To this end, an evaluator makes every effort to collect information from different sources such as students, teachers, administrators, course designers, program staff, and so on. Also, the evaluator tries to gather data through different procedures such as questionnaires, interviews, observations, course documentations etc. Collecting hybrid type of information helps increase validity and reliability of the study. The main concern of program evaluation is to ensure that acquisition is taking place, teaching techniques and strategies are useful, materials are relevant and interesting, resources are available and adequate, and so forth. In the beginning, program evaluation wasmerely quantitative and/or experimental in nature. However, with the passage of time it was realized that qualitative and/or natural approaches are more useful than laboratory-like artificial experimental methods. The important issue in any course evaluation is to bring about some necessary changes. This article tries to elaborate on the preliminary aspects of program evaluation.
초록보기
The College English Test (CET) is an English language test designed for educational purposes, administered on a very large scale, and used for making high-stakes decisions. This paper discusses the key issues facing the CET during the course of its development in the past two decades. It argues that the most fundamental and critical concerns of large-scale high-stakes testing are test validity and fairness as defined in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (AERA, APA, & NCME, 1999). The CET has a current annual test population of over 18 million, and the results of the test, intentionally or unintentionally, may affect university graduates`` employment opportunities, the conferment of a bachelor``s degree, and the granting of a residence permit in big cities. The CET test developer, therefore, has been taking measures to make sure that no test taker will be potentially disadvantaged by such factors as test content, test condition, response mode and format, scoring of constructed-response items, and use of test results. Considerable care has been given to the test``s validity as well as its operational standardization, which is critical to fairness in high-stakes testing. The paper begins with an overview of the major developmental stages of the CET since its inception in 1987 and the standardized procedures involved in the CET design, item construction, test administration, test form equation, scoring and score reporting. Following the introductory part, the paper discusses in turn the CET validation efforts in the late 1990s, major revisions of the test with a view to aligning its content and task format with the College English curriculum requirements, and the recent research on the validity of the newly developed internet-based CET, a central focus of which has been on possible biases against test takers who are less proficient in computer operation. Validity and fairness, however, cannot be exclusively addressed in psychometric and technical terms. The use of the test in a particular social context or with particular groups of test takers may be valid and fair or invalid and unfair. In the final part, the paper concludes with a brief discussion of the political dimension of high-stakes testing, with a specialfocus on Messick``s (1992) unified construct validity argument, which views validity not as a feature or a possession of a test, but a process to validate in a multifaceted approach the uses and interpretations of tests and their scores (Davies, 2003).
5,200
초록보기
The Communicative Ability in language testing originates from a theory of language as communication proposed by Hymes (1972) and known as "communicative competence". The literature on language testing suggests that the practicality of communicative language testing (CLT) varies depending on how the instructors and teachers conceptualize CLT. As far as the researcher knows, no study has been done on the type of proficiency model behind language tests in the Iranian context. Therefore, the objective of this study is, firstly, to explore the language proficiency model based on which the tests are designed and constructed in Iranian high school and institutes. Secondly, the study aims at developing language proficiency model for the context of Iran as a basis so that teachers construct and design tests. To fulfill the objectives, two final tests of Iranian high school and institutes were analyzed. The analysis of the data indicated that high school and institute tests represent a short version of Lado``s model (1961) which is not in line with new trends in language testing and aims at discovering whether the correct habits have been formed.
5,200
초록보기
Reading skill has taken on an important role in most EFL teaching situations. While linguistic knowledge is only one aspect of this skill, background knowledge including culture can also play an important role (Alptekin, 2006; Johnson, 1981; Pritchard, 1990; Steffensen, Chitra, & Anderson, 1979). This study investigated the effect of cultural background or cultural schema on the performance of Iranian EFL students on local (bottom-up) and global (top-down) processes. Sixty-six female pre-university students took part in the study. They read five texts with familiar cultural themes and five texts with culturally unfamiliar topics (total=10). The multiple-choice items were designed in a way to test both bottom-up processing (word recognition, literal comprehension and finding referents of pronouns) and top-down processing (making inferences, skimming, scanning, etc). The findings showed that our students performed significantly better on local items compared with global items both for (un)familiar texts. It was also observed that their overall performance was mostly influenced by text familiarity. Their higher scores on local items can be explained by the fact that these items are totally easier to process due to the linguistic context available. In contrast, the difficulty of the global items can be explained because our EFL learners need extra linguistic knowledge to process such items. Also, this difference could be attributed to the teaching situation in which language teachers do not teach students how to read at all and learners are not familiar with higher-level, global processes being important in reading comprehension.
초록보기
The treatment of culture in foreign language textbooks is comparatively a new trend in English Language Teaching (ELT) which is based on the growing consensus that language textbooks should attempt to raise students`` awareness of international culture as well as that of their own. Being influenced by this thought, Bangladesh too like many other countries has incorporated intercultural contents in English language textbooks at secondary and higher secondary levels as a part of a reformation process in the ELT sector. The present study examines the proportion and kinds of intercultural contents in one of those textbooks, English for Today (EfT), which is produced locally by the National Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB), Bangladesh. It also aims at investigating intercultural awareness and abilities promoted through such input.
1