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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

Journal of Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics (Journal of PAAL )검색


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 언어학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 반년간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1345-8353
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 20권 1호 (2016)
초록보기
The aims of this study are to investigate the difference between peer-and teacher-assessment and to identify and explore the components in given criteria that students find easy or difficult when writing essays. One hundred and four essays and a survey were collected from 26 students at a Korean university in Seoul. The essays were analyzed to determine the difference between teacher-and peer-assessment and to evaluate the effects of peer-assessment. The results report that the teacher gave students lower scores in the first essay than students did as peer-assessment. However, the teacher gave students higher scores in the second essay than students did, which helps students have confidence to write English composition. Several students thought that the grammatical accuracy was the most difficult since it is not easy to accurately write their essays as English as foreign language (EFL) learners. Meanwhile, the survey results revealed that more than half the students thought that exchanging peer-assessment (69%) and using criteria (62%) were of much or some help in developing their essays. In this respect, conducting peer-assessment is helpful for students to monitor their work, to evaluate their partner`s work and to develop second/foreign language (L2) writing.
초록보기
How writing teachers conduct their assessment is an important but under-researched topic in the field of language assessment. By partly adopting Cheng et al.`s (2004) survey, this mail survey study aims to fill this gap by examining how tertiary-level EFL writing teachers assess their students in basic English writing classes in Taiwan. The results indicate that the most frequently used method was paragraph writing (84%), followed by editing a piece of writing such as a sentence or a paragraph (64%), essay writing (40%), and peer assessment (36%). Teachers were also found to use an eclectic mix of methods when assessing their students, and large-scale projects such as student portfolios were used by about a quarter of the participants. The results of this study offer a glimpse into teachers` classroom assessment methods for entry-level EFL writing courses. It is hoped that more research efforts would be carried out to further our understanding of teachers` assessment methods.
5,800
초록보기
A study was conducted to examine the differences in narrative essays produced by skilled and unskilled EFL student writers. Twenty-six Japanese university students participated in the study. They were told to write a narrative story based on six-frame pictures. The students were classified into two groups, skilled and unskilled, according to the holistic scores assigned to their compositions. Each student`s composition was analyzed at both the sentence and discourse levels. The results of analysis revealed several differences between the two groups of writers at the sentence level. Namely, compared with the unskilled writers, the skilled writers tended to produce longer essays where a larger number of adjective and adverb subordinate clauses were used and where fewer errors were found. At the discourse level, the skilled writers tended to incorporate all the components of the story grammar, whereas several unskilled writers failed to include such components as Setting and Reaction. The skilled writers also used a variety of discourse styles to delineate characters` actions and psychology, but their unskilled counterparts employed only a few discourse types for describing characters` inner states of mind. The paper concludes by suggesting the importance of developing students` knowledge of narrative writing and providing them with opportunities to translate that knowledge into actual production of narrative writing.

Automated Scoring of L2 Spoken English with Random Forests

( Yuichiro Kobayashi ) , ( Mariko Abe )
5,900
초록보기
The purpose of the present study is to assess second language (L2) spoken English using automated scoring techniques. Automated scoring aims to classify a large set of learners` oral performance data into a small number of discrete oral proficiency levels. In automated scoring, objectively measurable features such as the frequencies of lexical and grammatical items are generally used as "exploratory variables" to predict oral proficiency levels, any of which can be used as a "criterion variable" in this study. We have chosen the NICT JLE Corpus, a corpus of 1,281 Japanese EFL learners` speech productions coded into nine oral proficiency levels (Izumi, Uchimoto, & Isahara, 2004). The nine oral proficiency levels were used as the criterion variables and linguistic features analyzed in Biber (1988) as explanatory variables. We employed random forests (Breiman, 2001), a powerful method for text classification and feature extraction, to predict oral proficiency. As a result of random forests with the out-of-bag error estimate, 60.11% of the productions were correctly classified. Compared to the baseline accuracy of the simplest possible algorithm of always choosing the most frequent level (37.63%), our random forests model improved prediction by 22.48 points. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient with human scoring was 0.85. Predictors that showed a clear discrimination of oral proficiency levels were tokens, types, and the frequency of nouns in the order of strength.
6,000
초록보기
The purpose of this paper is to explore the effective use of the core schema-based instruction (SBI) in a classroom setting. The core schema is a schematic representation of the common underlying meaning of a given lexical item, and was first proposed on the basis of the cognitive linguistic perspectives by the Japanese applied linguists Tanaka, Sato and Abe (2006) as a new teaching approach. The SBI has been expected to contribute to English teaching in a new way that is different from the translation-based instruction (TBI) because the core schemas can lead learners to a more essential and profound understanding. However, the previous empirical research on the SBI has not always shown its effectiveness over the TBI. This paper firstly analyzed its causes with reference to the theoretical features of the core schemas and pointed out two kinds of difficulty for the effective use of the SBI. Then in order to get over the difficulties, it was argued that the SBI should involve a bottom-up language learning process, as insisted in cognitive linguistics as the usage-based model. As the bottom-up process, group work discussion was employed in this study, where learners discuss the core schematic image in a group with its sample sentences which were provided beforehand. This learning style is different from the top-down SBI, where the core schemas are provided prior to sample sentences as almost all the previous empirical studies did. The present study examined the difference in the effects between the bottom-up SBI and the top-down SBI through an experiment conducted to technical college students with the six English prepositions (at, in, on, to, for, with) as material. Based on the results of the former study by the researcher, the present study was designed to add some exercises to the bottom-up SBI group. The results obtained from t-tests and ANOVAs suggested several findings. The findings were that the bottom-up SBI is more effective than the top-down SBI in meaning comprehension and that the effect continues for two months.

Discourse Connector Usage in Argumentative Essays by American and Thai University Students

( Kamolphan Jangarun ) , ( Sudaporn Luksaneeyanawin )
5,800
초록보기
This study investigated the similarities and differences in the use of discourse connectors (DCs) in argumentative essays of American undergraduate students (AMs), Thai with high-English exposure (THHs) and Thai with low-English exposure (THLs). The data of these three groups were collected from 60 essays; 20 essays were from the corpus of University of Michigan with a total of 43 essays, the 40 Thai data were selected from 300 Thai university students based on their English exposure scores. Adopting the theoretical framework of Halliday and Hasan (1976), Biber et al. (1999), and Cowan (2008), there were five categories of DCs in this study: Additive, Adversative, Causal, Temporal, and Continuatives. The data were statistically analyzed in terms of mean, standard deviation, t-test, and One-Way ANOVA. It was found that there was a significant difference in two categories: Causal and Temporal. The t-test for Causal was .007, and the t-test for Temporal was .005 (p< 0.05). The differences in the use of DCs in AMs and THHs and THLs could be the effect of interlanguage processes, i.e., Language Transfer, Transfer of training, and Strategies of second language communication. Additive category was most frequently used by all three groups, especially the use of the DC lexis and. It is interesting to discover that pragmatically speaking and represents many discourse functions beside Addition. It is used in all main categories, i.e., Adversative, Causal, Temporal and Continuatives.
초록보기
The present study examined the use of prosody in semantic and syntactic disambiguation by means of comparison between Japanese and Chinese speakers` production of English sentences. In Chinese and Japanese, lexical prosody is more prominent than sentence prosody, and the sentential meaning contrast is usually realized through particles or a change in word order instead of prosodic cues. In order to find out whether Chinese and Japanese speakers of English can produce prosodic differences when they are aware of the syntactic and semantic ambiguity of the sentence, a read-aloud experiment was conducted. The results indicated that both Japanese and Chinese speakers were able to represent the difference of meaning by means of pause and the rising or falling of pitch at the final position of a sentence, which was reflected by their performance on boundary and tag questions. However, it was difficult for them to represent the difference of focus and phrase structure type merely by means of prosody. These findings suggest that some aspects of English prosody, such as a compound accent that is opposite to that of Japanese and Chinese, a phrasal accent that is peculiar to some degree, and an emphatic focus, require more consideration than other aspects. Furthermore, regardless of whether they are Japanese or Chinese learners of English, learners should expend more time and concentration on practicing the specific patterns of prosody that relate to semantic or syntactic disambiguation in English.
6,100
초록보기
Facing a dramatic decline in English standards over the past decade, the Hong Kong Government introduced the ``Fine-tuning Medium of Instruction (MOI) policy`` in 2010 to address the grievances arising from different sectors in the community. Integrating content and language has become popular in second/foreign language teaching in recent years. The main objective of the fine-tuning MOI policy is to raise students` English proficiency with a view to enhancing their competitiveness for further education and work in the era of globalization. Under this new policy, students can choose to learn through English upon meeting certain language criteria while schools are given more autonomy to offer English-medium classes. One aim of the present study is to explore the impact of the ``fine-tuning`` policy on how language and content-based subject knowledge are acquired as well as strategies employed by teachers and students to facilitate their teaching and learning in the second language environment. A qualitative research method semi-structured interviews of some teachers and students is employed to collect data from two schools. The main finding is that while agreeing that their English proficiency could be enhanced through learning content-based subjects in English, students admitted encountering difficulties in the process.

Interlanguage Pragmatics Study of Compliments among Thai EFL Learners

( Sakulrat Worathumrong ) , ( Sudaporn Luksaneeyanawin )
6,600
초록보기
This study compares how the native speakers of Thai (TTs) and American (AEs) as well as the Thai learners of English as a foreign language with high exposure to English (TEHs) and those with the low exposure (TELs) perform the speech acts of compliments (Cs) by taking the context of age into their consideration. The data were collected by means of a written discourse completion task (WDCT). The analysis of the data examined the pragmatic structures and in particular, strategies of Cs. The six pragmatic structures in terms of head acts [H] and supportive moves (S) were found. They were [H] only, [H]+(S), [H]+(S)+[H], (S)+[H], (S)+[H]+(S), and (S) only. Surprisingly, as opposed to other speech act studies, the AEs showed their preferences towards (S)-oriented structures while the TELs tended to favour [H]- oriented structures in giving Cs in all given situations in the context of age. A closer look at the C strategies exhibited cultural specific preferences among the AEs and the TTs which explain the interlanguage phenomena among the TEHs and the TELs. The interlanguage phenomena found in the two groups of learners may be seen as their incomplete mastery of English but they also could be interpreted as the communication strategies of the TEHs and the TELs to smooth their interactions in English.
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