The present study aims to explore the relationships among self-efficacy, motivation, and autonomous English learning for Chinese learners. Questionnaires were administered to collect data on self-efficacy, motivation, autonomous English learning, and the English proficiency of 1,605 university students from eight universities in southern and northern China. The participants were divided into groups according to their scores of autonomous English learning: low scores group (LSG), medium scores group (MSG), and high scores group (HSG). Descriptive statistics, oneway ANOVA, MANOVA, correlation analysis, and regression analysis were used to analyze the data. The results of the analyses showed that autonomous English learning was strongly correlated with both selfefficacy and motivation. Among the motivational components, L2 learning experience and ideal L2 self were more closely correlated to autonomous English learning. In addition, the results of regression analysis confirmed that self-efficacy, L2 learning experience, ideal L2 self, and integrativeness had positively predictive effects on autonomous English learning, and that autonomous English learning had a significant predictive power on the English proficiency of Chinese learners. Finally, some implications to effectively enhance autonomous English learning and the English proficiency of Chinese learners are provided and some suggestions for future research are given.