글로버메뉴 바로가기 본문 바로가기 하단메뉴 바로가기

논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

비교문학검색

COMPARATIVE LITERATURE


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 기타제어문
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 연3회
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1225-0910
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 54권 0호 (2011)

번역을 향한 증오

김시몽 ( Si Mon Kim )
한국비교문학회|비교문학  54권 0호, 2011 pp. 5-31 ( 총 27 pages)
6,700
초록보기
Despite its provocative title, this paper aims at stressing the need for an awareness of the functioning of translation. If there is such a thing as a hatred towards translation, it is because, as Jacques Derrida reminds us in his essay "Des Tours de Babel", man is ``doomed`` to translation ever since he tried to build the biblical tower of Babel. Translation is unavoidable, and yet throughout its history it keeps telling its imperfection. The foremost outstanding testimony of translation`s imperfection can be found in the fact that, whereas a piece of literature, in its original language and form, never turns old and keeps - given its status of work of (literary) art - being new whatever the epoch it is read in, a translation, on the other hand, prevails only until another one reveals both its flaws and its obsolescence. Thus it is common practice to have one same text translated over and over. Instead of accepting this fact with a sense of fate - since we are ``doomed`` - we should acknowledge its various implications. First of all it brings on the question of the translator`s status. The usual trend is to promote what Lawrence Venuti calls the "translator`s invisibility", which means that when we read a translated text, we should not be aware nor feel the intermedium that is the translator. Thus, the translator should make himself as invisible as possible. The counterpart of the translator`s invisibility is what we have called the ``translational pact``, meaning that a reader in front of a translated text acknowledge the fact that he is reading not the original but a translation of the original, and yet pretends he is reading the original (for instance, when an english speaker reads a translation of Dostoievsky, he will say and believe that he is reading Dostoievsky). Yet, to achieve a genuine invisibility is only possible for a text that is not challenging both linguistically and intellectually (such as user`s manuals, etc.), but whenever a new translation of a text (especially literary) is published, it carries the idea that the other (older) translation(s) are not good anymore (if they ever were). It therefore casts a doubt on the trust one can have in a translator. How can I judge whose translation of a same text is better? Is such a question even pertinent or legitimate? This kind of questioning emerges when a translator is not invisible any more. Such cases happen every once in a while, from H?lderlin`s translation of Sophocles` Antigone, Nerval`s french rendering of Goethe`s Faust, Baudelaire and Mallarm?`s translation of Edgar Allan Poe`s works, etc. Since the 90s, a debate has started in France with the new translation of Dostoievsky`s complete novels by Andre Markowicz. Markowicz`s translations were so far from all the other existing translations that the question could not but be raised as whose translation in closer to the original russian text. And since there are obviously no objective criteria that are satisfying enough to establish what is a good translation, we are forced to reformulate the questioning on the status and functioning of literary translation. As soon as the translator is no longer invisible, he then becomes an author himself. In this sense, the translation of Dostoievsky by Markowicz becomes "Markowicz`s Dotoievsky translation" the same way we speak of Glenn Gould`s or Sviatoslav Richter`s Bach`s Well-tempered clavier in music. In conclusion, what this paper tries to say is that as long as translator try to remain invisible, he somehow lies to himself as well as to his/her readers since he ``pretends`` he is not here; but once we are aware of the translator`s presence (his/her visibility), the status and functioning of the act of translating should be deeply re-assessed, in the sense that the translator now stands next (even though he might wish to be beneath) the author of the original work. Hence the so-called hatred of translation is more about concerns (about what translators should or should not be) than actual hatred.

이상 소설 연구 -"천재"와 "탕아"의 형상을 중심으로

김은경 ( Eun Kyung Kim )
한국비교문학회|비교문학  54권 0호, 2011 pp. 33-80 ( 총 48 pages)
12,300
초록보기
This essay aims to consider Lee Sang`s novels in it`s the Shapes of Characters, especially the Protagonist. This consideration covers the study on the aspects of taking action against the reality of 1930s represented in the Lee Sang`s Novel. The problem of Modernity is a key element to determine the Shapes of Protagonist. Additionally, the esthetic sides are also grounds to have figure out the Shapes. This essay eventually make clear the Stratified Aspects of Lee Sang`s novels. These strata are not the relations between reality and unreality(the stream of consciousness), but the different ways of coping with the same world. In Chapter 2, I discuss on the coexistence of the two shapes in a novel. The view of history distinguishes the Shape of Genius from the Shape of Debauchee, which are two selves of a character. The former`s concept of history is continuity, and the latter`s is rupture. The Debauchee`s concept of history can contemplate through the retrogression of the family history, and the rupture of family history which appears in his anti-familial love affairs. The Debauchee who is involved with a lot of women against the family ethics shows his identity is collapsed. Through the Genius Self, we can study the tension between 19th century and 20th century. Experiencing these tension, the Genius Self explore his identity, which can study through the symbol of cloth, the imagination of body dissection. These two shapes of selves respectively occupy the heterogeneous space-time which is the esthetic side to characterize the Shapes. Women characters act as switching element from one self to the other self. Involving in the Protagonist`s love affair, they demonstrate the Corporeality which is against the traditional ethics and the Intelligence. Therefore, they indirectly illuminate the aspects of The Debauchee`s view of history and Intelligence Pursuit of The Genius. Contacting with foreign elements, the Genius pursuit New Meaning, and want to turn it over the coming generations. In Chapter 3, I discuss on the division of the two shape of the Protagonists, comparing Gijuhoesi with Nalgae. The Corporeality of Capitalism is key element to divide the two protagonists. The protagonist of Gijuhoesi is characterized as a incomparable Debauchee viewed from two sides. First point is the view of history as rupture and Corporeality appeared in relation with a prostitute-wife. Second point is conspiracy with the Corporeality of Capitalism. Through ``the economy of O`` accumulating a fortune by management of Capital, Gijuhoesi reveals contradiction which may appear in the economic principle of capitalism. The protagonist of Gijuhoesi conspire with ``the economy of O``, requesting to increase money of prostitute-wife. All characters of the novel are tenors of the metaphor ``Spider`` which means sucking in the other party`s economically and sexually. As most nearly ``Spider``, the protagonist shows the shape of the incomparable Debauchee. Meanwhile, the prologue of Nalgae shows the view of history as continuity and the protagonist of Narrative displays the shape of a Genius. This essay study the shape of Genius through ``The economy of Wife``. ``The economy of Wife`` also shows the Corporeality of Capitalism as ``the economy of O``. But the aspects distinct from O`s. The wife`s economy means that she pays her husband for having space and time to prostitute herself. Contrary, her husband pay for having space to waste time. The event of Adalin caused from the imbalance between the space-time which the wife wants to do business and the time which the husband waste outside shows harmful effect of Capitalism. Ironically, with ``the event of Adalin`` as momentum, the protagonist wake up from being ``a Stuffed Genius``. The space of thinking and playing indicates the shape of Genius turns into the space of Corporeality because of the Imbalance, from which the protagonist escape and dream ``Modern World`` being in harmony the Modern Culture and the Modern Spirit. In Chapter 4, I discuss on the unity of the two shapes of self. Silhwa and Jongsenggi consists of two story lines narrated by introspective narrator. This essay start discussion from noticing the logic of Mathematics adapted in the novels. In discussion of Silhwa, I see the difference of space-time(the settings of the two story lines) indicates ``Time Difference of Modernity``. The stories of Seoul(23-24th of Oct.) and Dongkyung(23-24th of Dec.) narrated by free association shows the different degrees of Modernization of two space-time. The shape of Debauchee and of Genius are at opposite ends of the spectrum. The Protagonist as introspective narrator recognize ``Time Difference of Modernity`` through the aspects of free love and contact with Modern Intelligence. The Protagonist of Jongsenggi as introspective narrator interweaves two story lines, and there are three deaths of the protagonist at the age of twenty-five years and eleven months. This essay see it as the total amount of living of protagonist including the different aspects of his life. Jongsenggi is the novel that the Genius(25years and 11months) narrates on the Debauchee who die at 25years and 11months. Therefore, Jongsenggi consist of two story lines, that is the story of Genius and of Debauchee. This essay the story shows the shape of Genius calls the Narrative of Fall, and the story shows the shape of Debauchee calls the Narrative of Spring. The former creates the latter, and vice versa. Jongsenggi is likely to be defined as ``Writing of the Genius on the Debauchee``. The death unite different aspects of life. Briefly, the internal orders dominating the Novels of Lee Sang are as in the following ; The two images of self occupying different time-spaces switch over to the other image of self through the medium of women characters, and according to the aspects of being the two selves, the meanings of the novels are generated. The meanings are the aspects of responding to the reality of 1930s represented the ``Modernity``, are ultimately concluded in the recognition of limitation of the colonized Chosun and the pursuit of the essence of ``Modernity``. This essay discuss that these internal orders of the Novels of Lee Sang are succeeding the narrative composition and meaning generation of the traditional novel, Gu-unmong(九雲夢).

공감의 시학, 웹툰과 영화의 장르 뛰어넘기 -『그대를 사랑합니다』웹툰과 영화 비교

안미영 ( Mi Young Ahn )
한국비교문학회|비교문학  54권 0호, 2011 pp. 81-107 ( 총 27 pages)
6,700
초록보기
This writing looked into the genre outcome realized by Kangpool`s Webtoon and a movie titled and also took a look at the reason for the same works` gaining popularity beyond the genre of a cartoon and movie. The outcome Kangpool achieved in his cartoon is summarized as three points as below: First, Kangpool`s pure love cartoon exuberantly conveys the sentiments of the characters in the cartoon through the appropriate use of ``panel`` and ``interval`` to his readers. Second, he expresses the characters` psychology and sentiments through the transformation of handwriting. In addition, he maximizes the visual effect in the process of sound literation. As a result, he was able to convey a story about an elderly person, which is apt to be heavy mistakenly, softly and comically. Third, Kangpool`s pure love cartoon can be classified as a lyrical fiction in which a main character`s lyrical experience is portrayed through the variety of objects of internal rapport. The author creates a character`s personality and conducts an event by identifying a character with ``the object of internal rapport.`` Further, the object of internal rapport is a medium linking a character to another character, and through the object each character shares love and affection. In the movie , its director laid emphasis on two points as below: First, the movie put a focus on maximizing the love between the hero Kim, Manseok and Mrs. Song. Because of that, the movie is minimizing the information on the previous spouses of the hero Kim, Manseok and Mrs. Song. Second, the movie is maximizing the conjugal love through Janggunbong and his wife while highlighting the children`s indifference and irresponsibility for elderly parents. Comparing to a cartoon, a movie doesn`t give an interpretive experience to readers. With the addition of epic character to the already-made character of an actor, the main theme a director tried to deliver was clearly conveyed, but failed to show a minute transition of an event and characters` secret changes in sentiments. Despite the difference between a cartoon and movie, the work was warmly received and got attention from the public beyond genre. That`s because this story is maximizing compathy in a variety of forms. In short, it`s because the compathy between characters internally within the work, and the compathy between the characters in the work and readers[viewers] externally outside the work, and the author`s sentiments and reality of aging society from the social point of view are forming the compathy with each other. This work was created by considering aesthetic and ethical basis in its representation form and thematic awareness, so it was able to draw the compathy in diverse forms.

『파도』에 나타난 시간과 파도 이미지

염경순 ( Kyong Soon Yom )
한국비교문학회|비교문학  54권 0호, 2011 pp. 109-132 ( 총 24 pages)
6,400
초록보기
This paper explores literary portrayals of time and wave-image in The Waves written by Virginia Woolf. Specifically, I apply Henri Bergson`s theories of time to the text so as to analyze the meaning of The Waves. Bergson`s idea of duration, memory, or of an eternal flux which precedes the categories of time and space, has a close resemblance to Woolf`s treatment of the fluid movement of time within the consciousness. Virginia Woolf looked for a new form which could overthrow the technique of conventional fiction. Woolf attempted to describe something existing beyond everyday consciousness, the idea of which is connected with Bergsonian ``duration``. In addition, Woolf begins to use time as a literary element, thereby reducing her development of plot and characterization. In The Waves, Woolf would write a book told only in psychological time within the minds of six individuals. She tends to see external or physical objects in terms of their subjective significance for her characters. But at the same time she uses a large number of images metaphorically in order to represent the consciousness of her characters. For instance, in the Waves Woolf uses color, and the different meanings which particular words have for each of her characters, as symbolic images to evoke the character`s consciousness and even to distinguish them from each other. Besides, the soliloquies in The Waves demonstrates a rhythmic, fluid psychic movement that is like the flux of sound waves. Ricoeur argues that literature stands outside time and yet that regaining the original impression means that the work of art has recovered life in the extratemporal moment. For Woolf, mental space is a constantly changing reality, or in other words resembles the character of Bergsonian duration. Woolf`s writing suggests the possibility of achieving the extratemporal ``recovery`` of lost time in mental space through the inspiration of works of art. Besides, what makes her writing notably modernist in its representations of time is its focus on the unique ways in which each subject constructs or reconstructs an external world, which is thus at least as mental and individual as it is material and universal.
6,600
초록보기
This study is based on historicized, analytical, and discursive readings of the coming of age stories by American women writers, geographically, historically, culturally, and politically grounded. I delve into the developmental processes of daughter-narrators to become American Latinas in Mexican American writer Sandra Cisneros`s Caramelo (2002) and Cuban American writer Cristina Garcia`s Dreaming in Cuban (1992). In terms of becoming an American Latina, as "border women" or "subaltern women," the daughter-narrators, Mexican daughter Celaya and Cuban daughter Pilar, come to realize the internally and institutionally marginalized self and undergo an ongoing transformation. The process of becoming an American Latina is cultural, subversive, ongoing, and transformative. In other words, a sense of Latina-self in American society is not fundamentally secured but critically transformative in relation to (grand)mothers and in historical, political, and cultural shifts. First of all, I discuss a brief history of Mexico and Cuba in relation to the United States in order to more fully understand Latino/a sensibility and position in American society. Even though I do not attempt to provide a comprehensive history, given the complexity and scoop of such an endeavor, my attempt to present a brief history should be considered provisional. By rewriting the stories of diaspora family histories and raising the questions of identity, memory, and home, the daughter-narrators challenge the racial and sexual stereotypes produced by dominated historical and cultural account in a white-centered society. Their becoming processes are not limited by cultural and historical boundaries; their ongoing journeys revolve around the fact that home is a symbolic, representative, imaginative, and material metaphor. In the end, throughout this study, drawing on the developmental narratives in dynamic contexts of cultural shifts and political economic changes, I strive to point up the ongoing transformations and the creative articulations of American Latinas in struggling and resisting the politics of race, class, gender, and sexuality that limit their opportunities for self-development to be active speaking subjects in a feminist sense.

세계문학으로서 한국문학: 번역과 번역공정의 문제에 대한 고찰

한지희 ( Ji Hee Han )
한국비교문학회|비교문학  54권 0호, 2011 pp. 159-184 ( 총 26 pages)
6,600
초록보기
As is easily guessed, translated Korean literature has virtually little presence in the world literary market. Among many reasons to analyze this paucity of world interest in translated Korean literary works, the difficulty of English translation itself has been mostly blamed. However, given the fact that the difficulty is not applied only to Korean literature but to all non-English works, the precarious nature of the success of translated works needs to be probed in another light. Hence, I propose to examine the possibility that what domestic scholars provide as the essence of Korean literature might taste different from what foreign readers expect from reading world literatures. This means that domestic scholars need to form another approach to ``Koreanness`` of Korean literature in order to suit the taste of non-Korean world readers. As a trial attempt, I review the research papers on modern Korean poetry and how domestic scholars have forged the nature of Korean poetry as "literature of grief." Then using two translated texts of Ko Un`s poems, I try to show that in most cases culturally specific sentiments cannot be materialized in the educated English in the process of translation and that only a writer`s humanist gaze at and compassion for human suffering can survive the atrocity of translation and come to attain any kind of poetic achievement.

Maria Edgeworth`s Leonora and Helen: Habermasian "the Public Sphere" and Female Agency

( Doo Hyun Park )
한국비교문학회|비교문학  54권 0호, 2011 pp. 185-201 ( 총 17 pages)
5,700
초록보기
This paper traces out the fact that a 19th-century British female writer, Maria Edgeworth had represented some conflict and mediation between the public sphere and the private self through her two novels, Leonora and Helen. A German sociologist, Jurgen Habermas suggested ``the public sphere`` where some literary fictions played an important role in the consolidation of the space, along with the conditions for rational public interaction. Habermasian concept, ``the public sphere can be adapted to Edgeworth`s novels, signifying the important literary public sphere. As the public sphere was limited to the political realm, the literary public sphere had appeared, functioning some important ideological mode, validating the emerging bourgeois identity. Edgeworth`s novels can belong to a part of the literary public sphere in which women have to play a great role in reconstructing the public sphere. In the process, the feminine subjectivity may be formed in the public sphere. Therefore, Edgeworth`s novels have contributed to constructing the cultural politics of the emerging public sphere.

Rewriting With "Freedom Now" -On Aime Cesaire`s A Tempest

( Eun Hyung Park )
한국비교문학회|비교문학  54권 0호, 2011 pp. 203-223 ( 총 21 pages)
6,100
초록보기
This research investigates the alternative modernist aspect in Aime Cesaire`s A Tempest. A Tempest, a rewriting of Shakespeare`s The Tempest, deals with the problem of colonialism with the re-created resistant protagonist Caliban. Rewriting is a method developed from the surrealist language in Cesaire`s previous poetries. This theatre is concerned with the problem of colonized identity and emancipating history through the question of the language. Caliban`s ``Freedom now`` is pronounced with the Swahili ``Uhuru``, and Caribbean traditional gods such as Shango and Eshu appear as the possibility of alternative history. Finally, Caliban leaves the island, leaving Prospero destroyed. This home leaving Caliban shows Cesaire`s universal modernist strategy far from being confined to the particular nativism.

Minor Subjects/Minor Literature: Maja Lee Langvad`s Find Holger Danske and the Search for Danishness

( Dr. Kim Su Rasmussen ) , ( Eli Park Sorensen )
한국비교문학회|비교문학  54권 0호, 2011 pp. 225-249 ( 총 25 pages)
6,500
초록보기
This article focuses on the Korean-born Danish adoptee poet Maja Lee Langvad`s work Find Holger Danske (2006), and Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari`s notion of minor literature. Maja Lee Langvad`s book is an ironic-experimental as well as lyrical exploration of the question where to find Danish-ness (and where not to find it) at the margins - in an epoch during which the very notion of Danish-ness seems to be under threat. It is furthermore a reflection on the author`s own minority position - that of the transracial adoptee. Transracial adoptee subjectivity is one of the most intriguing forms of migrancy, above all because it is rarely categorized as a form of migration. Yet the process involves subjects radically deterritorialized and uprooted. In Lee Langvad`s texts, a strange traversing between invisibility and visibility, as well as minority and majority, is captured with an acute urgency - and all the more so because the book foregrounds the recent political climate in Denmark - one that within the last two decades has become increasingly paranoid and xenophobic. Our argument is that her book effectively deconstructs the concept of Danish-ness while foregrounding marginalised subjectivities, such as the author`s own particular subject position.

이브 본느프와의 관점에서 본 샤를르 보들레르 작품들에서의 자연개념

이신자 ( Shin Ja Lee )
한국비교문학회|비교문학  54권 0호, 2011 pp. 251-277 ( 총 27 pages)
6,700
초록보기
본느프와는 보들레르의 작품들을 평론하면서 이 시인이 특히 자연개념에 대해 깊이 탐색하고 있음을 주목한다. 본느프와에 의하면, 그 작가에게서는, 시의 언어와 형식의 불가분의 관계가 물질요소들에 상징성을 부여하며 시 주체들의 낭만적인 감성을 불러일으키고 또한 신성하고 순수한 예술을 생각하게 한다. 이 방향에서의 낭만주의적 자연개념과 함께 보들레르는 19세기에 실험과학정신을 바탕으로 기계화 문명을 지향하는 부르주아 산업사회의 파괴적인 현실주의적 자연개념도 생각한다. 그 두 개념의 자연들 중에서 보들레르는 현실주의적인 자연을 직접 예술작품들에 관련해서 생각하기도 한다. 본느프와 생각에, 이 시인은 그 당시 예술작품들에서 전반적으로 자연이 너무 많이 왜곡되는 것을 크게 염려한다. 예술작품은 자연의 원래 속성인 종합적인 생명력을 그대로 ``재창조``해야 함에도 불구하고 19세기의 예술가들은 물질 위주 사회의 부작용 속에서 때로 마약까지 복용하며 그들의 광적인 열정에 따라 자연을 단순히 모방하고 "인공 낙원"을 건설하려 한다. 예술가는 그의 창조적인 능력을 통해 자연의 절대적인 "아름다움"을 되찾고 이를 "선" 개념으로 연결시키며 불완전한 인간 삶의 도덕적 가치기준이 되게 해야 한다. 하지만 예술가는 자연의 형태를 변형시켜 추하게 표현할 때도 있다. 본느프와의 관점에서는, 이것이 바로 보들레르의 "악" 개념을 정의한다. 이 시인에게서 "악"은 자연을 인위적으로 쉽게 복사해버리는 예술가의 "게으름" 때문에 오기도 한다. 보들레르에 의하면, 예술작품 위에서 왜곡되는 자연은 인간의 이상적인 세계를 말살하기 때문에 예술가는 자연에 대한 진정한 표현을 통해 인간을 둘러싸고 있는 평범하고 "유한"한 현실세계 안에서 어떤 "무한"한 세계를 건립해야 한다. 본느프와의 생각으로는, 그 작가에게서 세계의 "무한성"은 인간의 숭고한 체험에 의해 파악될 수 있는 자연의 "미"로부터 상기된다. 자연의 "미"나 "선" 그리고 세계의 "유한성"과 "무한성" 등에 관한 보들레르의 생각에 입각해서 본느프와는 물질요소들이 부자연스럽게 잘못 배치된 가운데 자연을 변형시키는 예술작품에서는 곧 그 구성이 예술가의 비정상적인 정신구조를 반영한다고 생각한다. 예술작품의 구성이 부르주아 사회가 유도하는 모순된 산업문명의 영향을 받으며 마약을 복용하는 예술가의 심리상태와 밀접하게 관련된다. 이 관점에서 본느프와는 예술가의 건전한 창조적 욕망이 그의 작품을 구성할 때 자연의 본래 최초의 모습을 결코 파괴하지 않기를 바란다는 방향에서 보들레르의 궁극적인 자연관을 본다.
1 2 >