In this essay I aim to describe and intorpret chronotope and discourse of The Elegy of the Freshwater Turtle’s Valley, chronotope is a Bakbtinean term. What precisely is a chronotope? In its primary sense, a chronotope is a way of understanding experience； it is a specific form-shaping ideology for understanding the nature of events and actions. Actions are necessarily performed in a specific contents； chronotopes differ by the ways in which they understand context and the relation of actions and events to it. In literature and culture generally’ time is always in one way or another historical and biographical, and space is always social； thus the chronotope in culture could be defined as a field of historical, biographical, and social relations.
At any given time literature (especially the novel) offers a multiplicity of chronotopes. Taken as a whole, literature is a heterochronous‘ A great number of literary genres are available for conceptualizing the image of a person, the processes of history, and the dynamics of society. Familiarity with a variety of genres therefore offers a rich store of choices for understanding particular aspects of experience. In any given instance, some chronotopes may be more adequate than otherst
According to Jay Ladin we can define major chronotopes as chronotopes that 1) control local chronotopes ； 2) through this control, enter into dialogic relations with local chronotopes； as a result of these relations, become trans-subjective chronotopes that enter the words of another r performer, and reader by requiring us to construct space-time(i.e., perspectives) that can accommodate these complex relations ； and 4) provide the ground for images of human possibility that also extent dynamically into world of author, performer, and reader.
Given this definition, it is dear that we need some way of describing common relationships among chronotopes, so that analyses can take account of these relationships without being hopelessly bogged down in describing that local particulars. The following is a list of the most common chronotopic relations. They are 1) simple sequence, 2) sequential pattern, 3) dialectical, 4) paradoxical, 5) simple dialogical, 6) compound, 7) overlapping, 8) nested, 9) hierachical.
According to Bakhtin, language is never a unitary system of norms. On the contrary, in language, as in psyche and everywhere else in culture, order is never complete and always requires work. It is a task, a project( always ongoing and ever unfinished, and it is always opposed to the essential messiness of the world. In language, messiness is the result of the complexities of daily living, with all its unforeseen, small, prosaic purposes and shifts in mood and evaluation t which are not reducible to a system.
We can find many examples of folk rhetoric technique in Song Gee sook’s The Elegy of the Freshwater Turtle’s Valley. So I describe and interpret these techniques precisely. According to Bakhtin, the various languages of heteroglossia have their own ways of accenting and intoning given words, and there may be a tonality to the whole language. But
in using the inherited resource of linguistic experience (which is to say, other languages of heteroglossia), each way of speaking employs a completely different principle for marking differences and for estaldishing units. Because every time we speak, we respond to something spoken before and we take a stand in relation to earlier utterances about the topic, so folk rhetorical style is very important in fiction. In using words and speaking about topics, we find them already populated, indeed over- populated with other people’s utterances about them. Consequently, our speech becomes extremely about them.