When reinterpreting the Freudian unconscious, Lacan did not exactly follow what his forerunners had done. He wanted to be the Father who would create a new theory of influence in his own time. For this purpose he scrutinized and employed others' opinions: those of Saussure, Hegel, and ancient mystics among others. This paper examines Lacanian not-all theory in regards to the influence of Empedocles. Freud referenced this Greek philosopher when he named an instinct for death to contrast with an instinct for life. The words of Empedocles embodied two contrary forces, crucial factors in explaining how the world operates. They are the forces of Love(philia) and Hatred(neikos). What Lacan borrowed from him was not only these two forces as reformulated in Eros and Thanatos, but the four basic elements of which the world is composed, named rhizomata by Empedocles: air, fire, earth, and water. This paper will examine those four elements with respect to Lacan's four knots. The focus will be on the search for the proper order of rhizomata, matching the four elements to Lacan's four knots. The paper concludes that one thing hidden behind Lacanian not-all theory is a discourse on Nature inspired by the ancient mystic, Empedocles.