PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to conduct inter-rater and intra-rater reliability tests in patients with low back pain (LBP) using the prone instability test (PIT) and side-lying instability test (SIT). We have analyzed the Korean version Oswestry disability index (K-ODI) correlations and radiograph finding (RF) for validity.
METHODS: Individuals (n = 51) (mean age of 40.27 ± 13.28) with LBP for at least over a week were recruited, together with two participating physical therapist examiners. The measurement consisted of PIT, PST, K-ODI, and RF. Sensitivity (Sn), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value, negative predictive value, prevalence index, agreement %, Cohen's kappa, and prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) were calculated. The PIT and SIT were compared with RF for validity analysis, while PIT, SIT, K-ODI, and RF were calculated for the correlation analysis.
RESULTS: The intra-rater reliability test measured for the PIT (kappa = .79, PABAK = .88) and SIT (kappa = .73, PABAK = .84), and inter-rater reliability test measured for the SIT (kappa = .80, PABAK = .88) showed good agreements. The PIT (Sn = .65, Sp = .63) and SIT validities (Sn = .68, Sp = .70) were compared with RF, showing a significant correlation in PIT and RF (r = .69), SIT and RF (r = .73), and PIT and K-ODI (r = .53).
CONCLUSION: The SIT is a more comfortable position test than the PIT in patients. Both PIT and SIT have acceptable reliability and validity.